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Jennifer Dykema, Dana Garbarski, Ian F. Wall and Dorothy Farrar Edwards

23: 808–815. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-008-0613-1 . Fleiss, J.L. 1981. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions , 2nd edition. New York: Wiley. Fortune-Greeley, A.K., K.E. Flynn, D.D. Jeffery, M.S. Williams, F.J. Keefe, R.B. Reeve, G.B. Willis, and K.P. Weinfurt. 2009. “Using Cognitive Interviews to Evaluate Items for Measuring Sexual Functioning Across Cancer Populations: Improvements and Remaining Challenges.” Quality of Life Research 18: 1085–1093. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-009-9523-x . Fowler, F.J. and C. Cosenza

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Jaki S. McCarthy, Kathleen Ott, Heather Ridolfo, Pam McGovern, Robyn Sirkis and Danna Moore

5. References Couper, M. 2008. Designing Effective Web Surveys . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Creswell, J.W. 2014. A Concise Introduction to Mixed Methods Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Dillman, D. and C. Redline. 2004. “Testing Paper Self-Administered Questionnaires: Cognitive Interview and Field Test Comparisons.” In Methods for Testing and Evaluating Survey Questionnaires , edited by S. Presser, J. Rothgeb, M. Couper, J. Lessler, E. Martin, J. Martin, and E. Singer, 299–317. New York: Wiley and Sons, Inc

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Justyna Kosydar-Bochenek, Bogumił Lewandowski, Dorota Ozga and Krystyna Woźniak

. Odzyskaj życie po traumie. Przedłużona ekspozycja w terapii PTSD. Sopot: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne GWP; 2013. 8. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th Edition: DSM-5; 2013. 9. Joseph S, Williams R. Understanding Posttraumatic Stress: Theory, Reflections, Context and Future. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2005; 33(4): 423-441. 10. Radko J. Wtórny zespół stresu pourazowego w pracy strażaków i pracowników pogotowia ratunkowego - przegląd badań. Opuscula

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Farhan Saeed, Alan Bury, Stephen Bonsall and Ramin Riahi

.R. (2006) Working Minds – A Practitioner’s guide to Cognitive Task Analysis. A Bradford Book, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. [5] Seamster, T.L., Redding, R.E. and Kaempf, G.L. (1997) Applied Cognitive Task Analysis in Aviation. Ashgate Publishing Limited. [6] Stone, A. A., Bachrach, C. A., Jobe, J. B., Kurtzman, H. S. and Cain, V. S. (1999) The Science of Self-reports: Implications for research and Practice. Taylor and Francis, London. [7] Endsley, M. R. (1988) Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT

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Ewa Gieroń-Czepczor

de Vijver, Helena Hurme & Jolanta Miluska (1999). “Perception and Evaluation of Polish Cultural Femininity in Poland, the United States, Finland, and the Netherlands”. Cross-Cultural Research, May 1999 33, 131-161, doi:10.1177/106939719903300201 Bralczyk: to media kształtują język polityków (2009). Gazeta Prawna [online]. Retrieved from http://www.gazetaprawna.pl/wiadomosci/artykuly/365077,bralczyk_to_media_ksztaltuja_jezyk_politykow.html Cortés de los Ríos, Enriqueta (2002). “Cognitive Semantics and Axiology: A New Proposal to Study Metaphor in

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Erick Wara, Peter Jo Aloka and Benson Charles Odongo

://www.scirp.org/journal/ce) DOI:10.4236/ce.2013.43026 Prusha, J. A. (2012).Voices of High School Seniors: Perceptions of National Honor Society Students Regarding Their Cognitive Engagement in High School. A published PhD thesis. Iowa State University, Iowa. Robb, M. K. (2014). Factors That Influence Cognitive Engagement and Academic Success of Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Millennial Nursing Students. A published Phd Thesis. Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Rodriguez, J., & Boutakidis, L. P. (2013). The Association between School Engagement and

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Evangelina E. Ballini, Edward Helmes and Bruce K. Schefft

reflex seizures and epilepsies . Brain, 2005, 128: 700–710. doi: 10.1093/brain/awh446 Goodale M.A.: Perception and action in the human visual system . In: M.A. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The new cognitive neurosciences (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA, MIT Press 2000. Guerrini R., Dravet C., Genton P., Bureau M., Bonanni P., Ferrari A.R. et al.: Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy . Epilepsia, 1995, 36: 883–891. doi: 10.1111/j.1528–1157.1995.tb01631.x Gülgönen S., Demirbilek V., Korkmaz B., Dervent A., Townes B.D.: Neuropsychological functions in

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Songyut Akkakoson

Abstract

This paper reports on part of the research project in which instructor perspectives on the role of anxiety in an EFL speaking classroom and anxiety-coping strategies students employ when speaking English have been investigated. The existence of students’ speaking anxiety was revealed via a teacher interview. A total of 88 students from the intact classes also responded to an interview form for an analysis of anxiety-coping strategies they utilised when speaking English in class. The qualitative data from both instruments was analysed using the content analysis. The findings of the teacher interview data put forward that students of this study have experienced speaking-in-class anxiety. This anxiety may influence their grades, to some extent. Three factors that may hinder students’ development of oral skills emerge, including their lack of self-confidence, having poor English background and having neither intrinsic nor extrinsic motivation to use English. Using the target language as the medium of communication in class is viewed by the teachers as a must in theory, but flexibility is allowed in practice. Moreover, the results of the student interview data show a wide range of strategies employed to deal with anxiety (ie social, affective, meta-cognitive, compensatory, cognitive and memory-related strategies). Social strategies are the most frequently-used techniques. Suggestions for improvement in the overall oral English (ie vocabulary focus, audiovisual focus, self-practice, social focus, auditory focus, meta-cognitive focus, compensatory focus and affective focus) have also been given by the student participants. An increased repertoire of vocabulary is viewed as the most effective tool for such improvement.

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Kelly Maye

References Allen, J. P. (2003). An overview of Beck's cognitive theory of depression in contemporary literature [Unpublished works]. Rochester Institute of Technology. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. New York, NY: International University Press. Grow, G. (1996). Serving the strategic reader: Cognitive reading theory and its implications for the teaching of writing [Unpublished works]. Florida A&M University. Horotwitz, S. H

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Jan Cincera

Abstract

This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of seven in-service environmental education teacher training courses conducted in the Czech Republic in 2009-2011. The evaluation applied a grounded theory approach. 14 focus groups, 13 interviews and two postprogramme questionnaires were used. The evaluation describes a process of managing cognitive dissonance between the participants' concepts of effective teaching and environmental education and concepts presented by the courses. The paper discusses the strategies applied by the course managers for facilitating a conflict and defensive mechanisms used by the participants. The paper also discusses the implication of this experience for future courses