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Jörgen Eimecke, Katrin Baumert and Daniel Baier

. [21] Marsden D., Littler D., Repertory Grid Technique: An Interpretive Research Framework , European Journal of Marketing, 34, 7, 816–834, 2000. [22] Green K.C., Armstrong J.S., Simple versus complex forecasting: the evidence , Journal of Business Research, 68, 8, 16783–1685, August 2015. [23] Inea Consulting Ltd., World Commercial and Civil UAV Market Report 2015–2025. Retrieved from , 2015. [24

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Florin Fainisi and Victor Al. Fainisi

References [1] Chris Cole and Jim Wright, What are drones? ( ) [2] [3] Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of The European Parliament and of The Council of 20 February 2008 on common rules in the field of civil aviation and establishing a European Aviation Safety Agency, and repealing Council Directive 91/670/EEC, Regulation (EC) No 1592/2002 and Directive 2004/36/EC. [4] [5] http

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Aurelija Pūraitė, Daiva Bereikienė and Neringa Šilinskė

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. AUVSI. “Economic Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the United States.” Economic report by Darryl Jenkins & Bijan Vasigh (March 2013) // . 2. Braun, Sven, Friedewald, Michael, and Valkenburg, Govert. “Civilizing Drones: Military Discourses Going Civil?” Science & Technology Studies 28(2) (2015): 73–87. 3. Butler, Des. “The Dawn of the Age of the Drones: an Australian

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Monika Kardach, Paweł Fuć, Marta Galant and Marta Maciejewska

6. References 1. Galant M. Ograniczenie ryzyka zagrożeń w lotnictwie ogólnym przez zastosowanie systemu monitorującego stan psychofizyczny pilota. Rozprawa doktorska. Politechnika Poznańska, Poznań 2017. 2. Heinrich O., Drone laws in Europe. 3. 4. International Civil Aviation Organization, Manual on Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), Doc. 10019 ICAO, first edition 2016. 5. Klich E., Bezpieczeństwo lotów, Wydawnictwo Instytutu Technologii Eksploatacji, Radom 2011. 6. Rozporządzenie

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Grzegorz Lenda, Andrzej Uznański, Michał Strach and Paulina Lewińska

. Remote Sensing, 5, 521-538. doi:10.3390/rs5020521 Gocał, J. (2010). Geodezja inżynieryjno-przemysłowa, część 3. ISBN: 978-83-7464-327-6, Wydawnictwa AGH, Kraków Hoult, N.A. & Soga, K. (2014). 11 - Sensing solutions for assessing and monitoring tunnels, In Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials, edited by M.L. Wang, J.P. Lynch and H. Sohn, Woodhead Publishing, Volume 56, 309-346, Sensor Technologies for Civil Infrastructures Huber, P, J. (2009). Robust Statistics. ISBN 978-0-470-12990-6. John

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Giuseppe Lippi and Janne Cadamuro

Civil Markets. Sci Eng Ethics 2015; 21: 1393-412. 33. Amukele TK, Sokoll LJ, Pepper D, Howard DP, Street J. Can Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones) Be Used for the Routine Transport of Chemistry, Hematology, and Coagulation Laboratory Specimens? PLoS One 2015; 10: e0134020. 34. Amukele T, Ness PM, Tobian AA, Boyd J, Street J. Drone transportation of blood products. Transfusion 2017; 57: 582-8. 35. Drone Crash Database. Available at: Last accessed: 20 April 2017. 36

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Eugeniusz Sobczyński and Jerzy Pietruszka


The history of the development of military aeronautical charts began immediately before the First World War. The first charts created at that time did not differ much from topographic maps. Air planes were fairly slow back then and had a small range of action, which meant that the charts were developed at the scale of 1:200,000. When speed of aircraft increased, it soon turned out that this scale was too large. Therefore, many countries began to create charts with smaller scales: 1:300,000 and 1:500,000. The International Map of the World 1:1,000,000 (IMW) was frequently used for continental flights prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, while 1:3,500,000 and 1:5,000,000 maps were commonly used for intercontinental flights.

The Second World War brought a breakthrough in the field of aeronautical chart development, especially after 7 December 1941, when the USA entered into the war. The Americans created more than 6000 map sheets and published more than 100 million copies, which covered all continents. In their cartographic endeavours, they were aided foremost by the Brits.

On the other hand, the Third Reich had more than 1,500 officers and about 15,000 soldiers and civil servants involved in the development of maps and other geographic publications during the Second World War. What is more, the Reich employed local cartographers and made use of local source materials in all the countries it occupied. The Germans introduced one new element to the aeronautical charts – the printed reference grid which made it easier to command its air force.

The experience gained during the Second World War and local conflicts was for the United States an impulse to undertake work on the standardization of the development of aeronautical charts. Initially, standardization work concerned only aeronautical charts issued by the US, but after the establishment of NATO, standardization began to be applied to all countries entering the Alliance. The currently binding NATO STANAGs (Standardization Agreements) distinguish between operational charts and special low-flight charts. The charts are developed in the WGS-84 coordinate system, where the WGS-84 ellipsoid of rotation is the reference surface. The cylindrical transverse Mercator projection was used for the scale of 1:250,000, while the conformal conic projection was used for other scales.

The first aeronautical charts issued at the beginning of the 20th century contained only a dozen or so special symbols concerning charts’ navigational content, whereas currently the number of symbols and abbreviations found on such charts exceeds one hundred. The updating documents are published every 28 days in order to ensure that aeronautical charts remain up-to-date between releases of their subsequent editions. It concerns foremost aerial obstacles and air traffic zones.

The aeronautical charts published by NATO have scales between 1:50,000 and 1:500,000 and the printed Military Grid Reference System (MGRS), while the aeronautical charts at scales between 1:250,000 and 1:2,000,000 contain the World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF).

Nowadays, modern military air planes are characterised by their exceptional combat capabilities in terms of speed, range and manoeuvrability. Aside from aircraft, contemporary armed forces make increasingly frequent use of aerial robots, drones and unmanned cruise missiles. This is why, there has been a noticeable increase, especially in NATO, in the amount of work devoted to the standardization and development of aeronautical charts, as well as deepening of knowledge of navigation and aeronautical information.

Open access

Jeremy Simpson

’. Terrorism and Political Violence, 20(1):87-109. Hood, C. (2011) The Blame Game: Spin, Bureaucracy, and Self-Preservation in Government. Princeton: Princeton. Hutter, B. and M. Power, (2005) ‘Organizational encounters with risk: an introduction’. In Organizational Encounters with Risk . B. Hutter and M. Power (eds.), pp. 1-32. Cambridge: Cambridge. International Human Rights and Conflict Resolution Clinic (IHRCRC) and Global Justice Clinic (GJC) (2012) ‘Living Under Drones: Death, Injury and Trauma to Civilians from US Drone Practices in Pakistan

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Šárka Waisová

References Aall, Pamela (1996): Nongovernmental Organizations and Peacemaking, in Crocker, Chester – Hampson, Fen – Aall, Pamela, eds. Managing Global Chaos. 433–444, United States Institute of Peace Press. Aarhus University (n.d.): Human Security: Career, Abiew, F. K. – Keating, T. (2004): Defining a Role for Civil Society, in Keating, T. – Knight, W.A. Building Sustainable Peace . 93–117, University of Alberta Press. Acharya, Amitav (2001): Human Security: East versus West. International

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Saleh Al Shraideh

.S. Ratification Debate.” Congressional Research Service , (2001), 7-5700. 8. Ed Pilkington, “US criticized by UN for human rights failings on NSA, guns and drones”. The Guardian. April 2, 2014 9. F.Martin, International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law , Cambridge University Press, 2006. 10. Jamil Dakwar, “U.S. Human Rights Record Undergoes International Scrutiny”. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) , April 2, 2014. 11. Julia Schast, “Battle of the Sexes: Why the United States Has Not Yet Ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of