Agnieszka Bień, Kozak2 Rzońca, Marta Zarajczyk, Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus and Agnieszka Kozak
1. Florea M. Laktacja i karmienie piersią. Przegląd piśmiennictwa. Perinatol Neonatol Ginekol. 2014;7(3):165-70.
2. Kowalska ME, Kalinowski P, Bojakowska U. Perspektywa globalna i krajowa edukacji kobiet w zakresie karmienia naturalnego. Pielęg XXIw. 2013;1(42):49-52.
3. Ćwiek D, Branecka-Woźniak D, Fryc D, et al. Reasons for giving up breastfeeding and support during problems with lactation in the northwestern part of Poland. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2010;56(2):129-32.
4. Klejewski A
Zakerihamidi Maryam, Hosseini Tabaghdehi Moniralsadat, Khakbazan Zohreh, Mohammadi Zeidi Banafsheh and Salehpour Amir
1 Anderson GC, Chiu SH, Dombrowski MA, Swinth JY, Albert JM, Wada N. Mother-Newborn Contact in a Randomized Trial of Kangaroo (Skin-to-Skin) Care. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 2003;32(5):604-11.
2 Edmond KM, Zandoh C, Quigley MA, Amenga-Etego S, Owusu-Agyei S, Kirkwood BR. Delayed breastfeeding initiation increases risk of neonatal mortality. Pediatrics. 2006; 117(3):e380-e6.
3 Yanikkerem E, Tuncer R, Yilmaz K, Aslan M, Karadeniz G. Breast-feeding knowledge and practices among mothers in Manisa, Turkey. Midwifery
Mohammed M. Alhaji, Sharbawi Roslin, Adrian Kay and Nik A.A. Tuah
As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the practice of feeding the newborn with only breastmilk (and prescribed medications when indicated) in their first 6 months of life, otherwise termed exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), has been shown to offer benefits, such as improved cognitive and sensory development, decreased risks from childhood-related killer diseases in the child and reduced risks of ovarian and breast cancers in the mother [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ].
Other benefits associated with EBF have also been documented from a spectrum of social and
guidance for future research. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;198(2):184-208; DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2003.08.021.
15. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. American Academy of Pediatrics. Work Group on Breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 1997;100(6):1035-9; DOI: 10.1542/peds.100.6.1035.
16. Dieterich CM, Felice JP, O’Sullivan E, Rasmussen KM. Breastfeeding and health outcomes for the mother-infant dyad. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013;60(1):31-48; DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.09.010.
17. Laug EP, Kunze FM, Prickett CS. Occurrence of DDT in human fat and milk. AMA Arch Ind
Karolina Rak, Danuta Kornafel and Monika Bronkowska
basis. Int. J. Epidemiol., 2002, 31, 1235-1239.
5. Boehm G., Stahl B., Oligosaccharides from milk. J. Nutr., 2007, 137, 847-849.
6. Boyko E., Proportion of type 2 diabetes resulting from impaired fetal growth. Diab. Care, 2000, 23, 1260-1264.
7. Burdette H.L., Whitaker R.C., Hall W.C., Daniels S.T., Breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and adiposity an 5 y of age. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2006, 83, 550-558.
8. Central Statistical Office. Health of children and youth in Poland in 2009. Studies and
Kin Yan Sze, Zenobia Chung Yee Chan and Vico Chung Lim Chiang
The medical community and public health organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), have repeatedly emphasized the benefits of breastfeeding, including a reduced risk of developing obesity-related diseases and allergies, for infant health.1-15 After decades of breastfeeding promotions, breastfeeding rates in Hong Kong have risen consistently, with initiation rates of >85%; however, the low continuation rate of exclusive breastfeeding, with only 31% of infants still breastfeeding at 1 month, and the widespread use of infant
Breastfeeding has proven health benefits for infants and their mothers and economic benefits for the family and society. Therefore, the World Health Organization and other key agencies have recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant’s life [ 1 , 2 ]. To provide essential support to initiate and maintain breastfeeding requires an understanding of the factors associated with parents’ choices for starting and maintaining breastfeeding.
Factors influencing the initiation of breastfeeding include maternal characteristics: maternal
Irēna Putniòa, Silvija Remberga and Ingrîda Rumba-Rozenfelde
Allergy to cow’s milk protein and/or soy is common among allergic diseases in infants. They appear at an early infant stage and remain important in clinical practice from one up to three years. According to clinical research, cow’s milk allergy affects about 1.9-4.9% of babies and infants, respectively, and in addition some of them also suffer from soy protein allergy. Dietary prevention of allergic protein by its elimination in food is a significant part of treatment, and allows adequate development of babies and restricts the risk of progressive allergic diseases. Securing exclusive breastfeeding is one of the basic principles in successful therapy treatment. However, there are cases when breastfeeding does not prevent the development of cross milk protein allergy. Only adequate special feeding formulas can provide both energy needs and sufficient quantity of proteins (8.9-11.5%) in food when breastfeeding is not possible. Knowledge of effective compensation mechanisms become apparent by analysing the situation in Europe and USA in the area of different available feeding formulas using both the medical insurance system and randomised formula providing tolerance of the mixture at about 90-95%. The goal of research was to determine the correlation between the availability of a special mixture, parental adherence and treatment outcomes. Applying special formulas is a routine part of treatment, and there is no doubt about its efficacy. No compensation mechanisms exist in present-day Latvia, and the current complicated economic situation in Latvia reduces the ability of parents to choose and buy appropriate formula food. Therefore, a substantial part of therapy treatment is unavailable to infants. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children in Latvia needs special consideration also because of poor knowledge of parents regarding the real situation.
Tugcin Polat, Eylem Saz, Nafiye Urganci, Basak Akyildiz and Fatih Celmeli
, Moazzem SW, Jarjoura CM, Carothers C & Hinton A. Breast-feeding initiation in low-income women: Role of attitudes, support and perceived control. Women's Health Issues. 2005;15:64-72.
Karacam Z. Factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding of healthy babies aged zero to four months: a community-based study of Turkish women. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17(3):341-9.
Yip R. The challenge of improving iron nutrition: Limitations and potentials of major intervention approaches. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51:S16
4. Szajewska H, Horvath A, Rybak A, Socha P. Karmienie piersią. Stanowisko Polskiego Towarzystwa Gastroenterologii, Hepatologii i Żywienia Dzieci. Standardy Medyczne/Pediatria. 2016; 13: 9-24.
5. World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund: Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breast-feeding: The special role of Maternity Services. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization. 1989; 13-18.
6. Guideline: Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding in Facilities Providing Maternity and