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Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka, Jackson I. Ikuren and Rita C. Onyiriuka

curves of body mass index for children and adolescents. Am J Dis Child 145: 259-263, 1991. 8. Malina RM, Katzmarzyk PT. Validity of the body mass index as indicator of the risk and presence of overweight in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 70: 131S-136S, 1999. 9. Mei Z, Grummer-Strawn LM, Pietrobelli A, Goulding A, Goran MI, Dietz WH. Validity of body mass index compared with other body-composition screening indexes for assessment of body fatness in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 75: 978-985, 2002. 10. Baker JL, Olsen LW, Sorensen TIA

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Fatemeh Behmanesh, Mohammad Daluee and Mina Mohajerzadeh

:9580773. Adkinson NF, Bochner BS, Busse WW. Epidemiology of asthma and allergic disease. Tung EA, Matsui E, Wiesch DG. Middleton's Allergy. Mosby Elsevier, 2009:740. von Mutius E, Schwartz J, Neas LM, Dockery D, Weiss ST. Relation of body mass index to asthma and atopy in children: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study III. Thorax. 2001;56(11):835-8. doi:10.1136/thorax.56.11.835 PMID:11641506. Castro-Rodríguez JA, Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Increased

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Safa’a A. Al-Zeidaneen, Maha T. Hdaib, Yahya W. Najjar and Marwa A. Al-Zidaneen

in Lebanon: findings from the first epidemiological study. Obesity 11(11): 1353-61, 2003 6. Akinyemiju T, Meng Q, Vin-Raviv N. Association between body mass index and in-hospital outcomes: Analysis of the nationwide inpatient database. Medicine 95(28), 2016. 7. Santos DA, Silva AM, Baptista F, et al. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independently related to functional fitness in older adults. Exp gerontol 47(12): 908-12, 2012 8. Halaweh H, Willen C, Grimby-Ekman A, Svantesson U. Physical activity and health-related quality of

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Volodymyr Pankiv and Ivan Pankiv

body mass index in an urban black community in Mangaung, South Africa. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med 8(1): 1210, 2016. 5. Wang S. Epidemiology of vitamin D in health and disease. Nutr Res Rev 22(2): 188-203, 2009 6. Truesdell D, Shin H, Liu PY, Ilich IZ. Vitamin D status and Framingham Risk Score in overweight postmenopausal women. J Womens Health 20(9): 1341- 1348, 2011. 7. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC et al. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 72(3): 690-693, 2000. 8

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ERFBM Azevedo, KC Alonso and A Cliquet

individuals [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. Cardiovascular mortality rate is twice as high in SCI patients than in able-bodied population [ 7 ]. However, other studies show that physical activity for individuals with SCI can decrease such risk factors [ 8 , 9 ]. There are several methods to assess body composition and obesity. However, there are not specific methods for individuals with SCI. Studies demonstrate the use of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), waist circumference, anthropometric index, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and body mass index (BMI) in this

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Gabriela Mut-Vitcu, Iuliana-Claudia Hudrea, Svetlana Moşteoru, Laura Gaiţă and Dan Gaiţă

References 1. Bae JP, Lage MJ, Mo D, Nelson DR, Hoogwerf BJ. Obesity and Glycemic Control in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: Analysis of Physician Electronic Health Records in the US From 2009-2011. J Diabetes Complications 30: 212-20, 2016. 2. Ganz ML, Wintfeld N, Li Q, Alas V, Langer J, Hammer M. The association of body mass index with the risk of type 2 diabetes: A case-control study nested in an electronic health records system in the United States. Diabetol Metab Syndr 6: 50, 2014. 3. Conway B, Miller RG

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Carmen Denise Caldararu, Dorin Tarta, Raluca Pop, Mirela Gliga, Emilian Carasca and Grigore Dogaru

chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2:550-62. 8. Shankar A, Leng C, Chial KS, et al. Association between body mass index and chronic kidney disease in men and women: population-based study of Malay adults in Singapore. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008;23:1910-18. 9. Fox CS, Larson MG, Leip EP, et al. Predictors of new-onset kidney disease in a community-based population. JAMA 2004;291:844-50. 10. Grieve E, Fenwick E, Yang HC, Lean M. The disproportionate economic burden associated with severe and complicated obesity: a systematic review

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Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Abel Romero-Corral, Virend K. Somers, Justo Sierra-Johnson, Keith D. Lindor, Paul Angulo and Francisco Lopez-Jimenez

References 1. Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G, Bugianesi E, George J, Farrell GC, et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology. 2007; 45:846-54. 2. Church TS, Kuk JL, Ross R, Priest EL, Biltoft E, Blair SN. Association of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, and waist circumference to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130: 2023-30. 3. Park SH, Kim BI, Kim SH, Kim HJ, Park DI, Cho YK, et al. Body fat

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Andreea Elena Bocicor, Gabriela Buicu, Daniela Sabau, Andreea Varga, I Tilea and I Gabos-Grecu

References 1. Vorona RD, Winn Maria, Babineau Teresa, et al. Overweight and Obese Patients in a Primary Care Population Report Less Sleep Than Patients with a Normal Body Mass Index. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(1):25-30. 2. Caballero B. The global epidemic of obesity: An overview. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:1–5. 3. James WP. The fundamental drivers of the obesity epidemic. Obes Rev. 2007;9(Suppl1):6–13. 4. Hargens TA, Kaleth AS, Edwards Elizabeth, Butner Katrina. Association between sleep disorders, obesity, and exercise: a review. Nat Sci Sleep

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Irina Tica, V.I. Tica, Claudia Mihailov and A. Mitroi

References 1. Luxembourg B, Schmitt J, Humpich M, Glowatzki M, Seifried E, Lindhoff-Last E, (2009)- Intrinsic Clotting Factors In Dependency Of Age, Sex, Body Mass Index, And Oral Contraceptives: Definition And Risk Of Elevated Clotting Factor Levels, Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. Coct ;20(7):524-34, Retrieved February 2013, From Pubmed Database On The World Wide Web: Http://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed, DOI: 10.1097/MBC.0b013e32832d9b58 2. Gallo MF, Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Schulz KF, Helmerhorst FM., (2011