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Adam Niemczyński

References Ajdukiewicz, K. (1934). Logiczny antyirracjonalizm w Polsce. Przegląd Filozofi czny, 38/4, 399-408. Allport, G.W. (1927). Concept of trait and personality. Psychological Bulletin, 24, 284-293. Allport, G.W. (1937). The functional autonomy of motives. American Journal of Psychology, 50, 141-158. Allport, G.W. and Odbert, H.S. (1936). Trait-Names. A Psycho-lexical Study Psychological Monographs, Vol. XLVII, Whole no. 211. Bandura, A. (1975). Social Learning and

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G. Vasiloudis, M. Koutsouba, Y. Giossos and I. Mavroidis

References 1. Bekker, M.H.J. (1993). The development of an Autonomy scale based on recent insights into gender identity. In European Journal of Personality, 7, (pp. 177-194). 2. Bekker, M.H.J.; Bachrach, N.; Croon, M.A. (2007). The relationships of antisocial behavior with attachment, autonomy-connectedness, and alexithymia. In Journal of Critical Psychology, 63(6), (pp. 507-527). 3. Bekker, M.H.J. and Belt, U. (2006). The role of autonomy-connectedness in anxiety and depression. In Depression and Anxiety, 23, (pp. 274-280). 4

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Professional autonomy

Challenges and Opportunities in Poland, Russia and Sweden

Gunnar Nygren, Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska and Maria Anikina

Abstract

Degree of autonomy is one of the key dimensions of professionalization in journalism. However, the strive for autonomy looks different in different media systems, where pressure on autonomy can come from both political and commercial powers, outside and within the media. Media development also changes the conditions for professional autonomy for journalists, in both a positive and a negative sense. In the comparative research project “Journalism in change”, the journalistic cultures in Russia, Poland and Sweden are studied. In a survey involving 1500 journalists from the three countries, journalists report on their perceived autonomy in their daily work and in relation to different actors inside and outside the media. The survey covers how the work has been changed by media developments, and how these changes have affected journalists′perceived autonomy. The results show similarities in the strive for autonomy, but also clear differences in how autonomy is perceived by journalists in the three countries.

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Kristinn Thórisson and Helgi Helgasson

Cognitive Architecture. In Proceedings of First Conference of Artificial General Intelligence , 176-187. Memphis, Tenn.: ISO Press. Huang, H., Messina, E., Albus, J. 2003. Towards a Generic Model for Autonomy Levels for Unmanned Systems (ALFUS). In Proceedings of the 2003 PerMIS Workshop , Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Intelligent Systems Division. Huang, H., Pavek, K., Novak, B., Albus, J., Messina, E. 2005. A Framework For Autonomy Levels For Unmanned Systems (ALFUS). In

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Marlies Honingh and Jolanta Urbanovič

References Caldwell, B. J. and J. M. Spinks. 1992. Leading the Self-Managing School . London: Falmer. Davies, B. and G. C. Hentschke. 1994. “School Autonomy: Myth or Reality - Developing an Analytical Taxonomy.” Educational Management & Administration 22(2), 96 - 103. Guthrie, J. W. and L. C. Pierce. 1990. “Th e International Economy and National Education Reform: A Comparison of Education Reforms in the United States and Great Britain.” Oxford Review of Education 16(2), 179 - 203

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O.A Gavrilyuk

medical training is organised; Fourth, there are many university teachers who are not ready to face the modern challenges of higher medical education, completely rethink traditional study goals and strategies of teaching in order to provide optimal challenges for students, ensure a diversity of learning experiences, built in accordance with the possibilities and the needs of all student categories, making students feel competent, supporting their autonomy [ 1 , 2 ] and internationalising the content of higher education [ 3 ]. Fifth, despite proclaimed transformation

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Nigatu Regassa and Gete Tsegaye

References Anderson, S. & Eswaran, M. (2009). “What determines female autonomy? Evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of Development Economics, 90, 179-191. Bloom SS, Wypij D, Das Gupta M. (2001). “Dimensions of women’s autonomy and the influence on maternal health care utilization in a north Indian city”. Demography. 38(1):67-78. BOFED (2011). Annual Report Submitted to Regional Council Hawassa, Ethiopia. BOFED (2006). Bureau of Finance and Economic Development Division of Statistics and Population

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Hrvoje Ćurko

3 For the purpose of this article, institutions of autonomy are defined as institutions of territorial autonomy. They are designed on the one hand, to accommodate the grievances of distinct ethno-linguistic groups, as is the cases of the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia in Spain, and Quebec in Canada. The latter are considered distinct “nacionalidades” under the Spanish Constitution of 1978, and possess a separate language, co-official with the Castillian Spanish. On the other hand, in other cases, these institutions are designed to accommodate the

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Carie J. Green

References Autonomy. (2018). In Merriam-Webster dictionary online . Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/autonomy Benwell, M. C. (2013). Rethinking conceptualisations of adult-imposed restriction and children’s experiences of autonomy in outdoor space. Children’s Geographies , 11 (1), 28-43. Bromley, R. F., & Mackie, P. K. (2009). Child experiences as street traders in Peru: Contributing to a reappraisal for working children. Children’s Geographies , 7 (2), 141-158. Chawla, L. (1992). Childhood place attachments

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Mari Vuorisalo, Raija Raittila and Niina Rutanen

–49. Massey, D. (2005). For space . London: Sage. Millei, Z., & Imre, R. (2016). “Down the toilet”: Spatial politics and young children’s participation. Politics, citizenship and rights. In K. Kallio, S. Mills, & T. Skelton (Eds.), Politics, citizenship and rights. Geographies of children and young people , vol 7. (pp. 171–188) Singapore: Springer. Millei, Z. (2011). Thinking differently about guidance: Power, children’s autonomy and democratic environments. Journal of Early Childhood Research , 10 (1), 88–99. National Core Curriculum for Early