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Tiberiu Nyulas, Emese Marton, Victoria Ancuta Rus, Nora Rat, Mihaela Ratiu, Theodora Benedek and Imre Benedek

REFERENCES 1. World Health Organisation, Cardiovascular disease (CVDs), 2016. Available from: . 2. Dubey G, Verma SK, Bahl VK. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction: Outcomes and determinants of outcomes: A tertiary care center study from North India. Indian Heart J. 2017;69:294-298. doi: 10.1016/j.ihj.2016.11.322. 3. Choy SY, Mintz GS. What have we learned about plaque rupture in acute coronary syndromes? Curr Cardiol Rep. 2010

Open access

D. Selvathi, N. Emimal and Henry Selvaraj

References [1] World Health Organization, “Fact sheet No. 317,” September 2011, [Online] Available: [2] A. Katouzian, S. Sathyanarayana, B. Baseri, E. E. Konofagou, and S. G. Carlier, “Challenges in Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization with Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS): From Data Collection to Classification,” IEEE Transaction on Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 315-327, 2008. [3] E. C. Kyriacou, C. Pattichis, M. Pattichis, C

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Roxana Buzas, Alexandru Florin Rogobete, Sonia Elena Popovici, Tudor Mateescu, Teodora Hoinoiu, Virgiliu-Bogdan Sorop, Tiberiu Bratu, Marian Ticlea, Calin Marius Popoiu and Dorel Sandesc


Worldwide, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) represent one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality, and acute coronary syndromes are responsible for a large number of sudden cardiac deaths. One of the main challenges that still exist in this area is represented by the early detection and targeted monitoring of the pathophysiology involved in CVDs. During the last couple of years, researchers have highlighted the importance of molecular and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the initiation and augmentation of CVDs, culminating in their most severe form represented by acute myocardial infarction. One of the most studied molecular factors involved in this type of pathology is represented by nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), as well as the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs). It has been suggested that miRNAs can also be involved in the complex process of atheromatous plaque vulnerabilization that leads to an acute cardiac event. In this review paper, we describe the most important molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CVDs and atheromatous plaque progression and vulnerabilization, which include molecular mechanisms dependent on NF-κB. For this paper, we used international databases (PubMed and Scopus). The keywords used for the search were “miRNAs biomarkers”, “miRNAs in cardiovascular disease”, “NF-κB in cardiovascular disease”, “molecular mechanism in cardiovascular disease”, and “myocardial NF-κB mechanisms”. Numerous molecular reactions that have NF-κB as a trigger are involved in the pathogenesis of CVDs. Moreover, miRNAs play an important role in initiating and aggravating certain segments of CVDs. Therefore, miRNAs can be used as biomarkers for early evaluation of CVDs. Furthermore, in the future, miRNAs could be used as a targeted molecular therapy in order to block certain mechanisms responsible for inducing CVDs and leading to acute cardiovascular events.

Open access

Tiberiu Nyulas, Mirabela Morariu, Nora Rat, Emese Marton, Victoria Ancuta Rus, Mihaela Ratiu, Theodora Benedek and Imre Benedek

REFERENCES 1. Alexopoulus N, Raggi P. Epicardial Adipose Tissue: Another Tassel in the Complex Fabric of Atherosclerosis. Hematol Disord Drug Targets . 2018;18:17-26. 2. Nakanishi K, Fukuda S, Tanaka A, et al. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Accumulation Is Associated With Renal Dysfunction and Coronary Plaque Morphology on Multidetector Computed Tomography. Circ J . 2015;80:196-201. 3. Maurovich-Horvat P, Kallianos K, Engel LC, et al. Relationship of thoracic fat depots with coronary atherosclerosis and circulating inflammatory biomarkers. Obesity

Open access

Annabella Benedek, Diana Opincariu, Imre Benedek, Ionuț Ferenț, Roxana Hodaș, Emese Marton and Theodora Benedek

References 1. Benedek T. The Link between Periodontal Disease, Inflammation and Atherosclerosis- an Interdisciplinary Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine 2017;2:11-16 2. Zahnd G, Schrauwen J, Karanasos A, Regar E, Niessen W, Walsum T, et al. Fusion of fibrous cap thickness and wall shear stress to assess plaque vulnerability in cor- onary arteries: a pilot study. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2016;11:1779-1790 3. Nyulas T, Chiț u M, Mester A, Jáni L, Condrea S, Opincariu D, et al. Computed

Open access

Levente Péter

References 1. Benedek T, Mester A, Benedek A, Rat N, Opincariu D, Chițu M. Assessment of Coronary Plaque Vulnerability in Acute Coronary Syndromes using Optical Coherence Tomography and Intravascular Ultrasound. A Systematic Review. Journal of Cardiovascular Emergencies. 2016;2:173-184. doi: 10.1515/jce-2016-0028. 2. Spence JD. Transcranial Doppler monitoring for microemboli: a marker of a high-risk carotid plaque. Semin Vasc Surg. 2017;30:62-66. doi: 10.1053/j.semvascsurg.2017.04.011. 3. van den Bouwhuijsen

Open access

Theodora Benedek

, Mahendra L, Nagarajan A, Mathew K. Prevalence of eight putative periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic plaque of coronary artery disease patients and comparing them with noncardiac subjects: A case-control study. Indian J Dent Res. 2015;26:189-195. 14. Shor A, Kuo CC, Patton DL. Detection of Chlamydia pneumonia in coronary arterial fatty streaks and atheromatous plaques. S Afr Med J. 1992;82:158-161. 15. Kuo CC, Gown AM, Benditt EP, Grayston JT. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in aortic lesions of atherosclerosis by immunocytochemical

Open access

Marius Orzan, Roxana Hodas, Mihaela Dobra, Nora Rat, Monica Chitu and Imre Benedek

.02.002. 3. Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet JP, et al. ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J 2015; 37:267-315. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv320. 4. Benedek T. The Hemodynamic Impact of Unstable Coronary Plaques - Do We Have the Evidence? Jornal of Cardiovascular Emergencies. 2017;3:59-60. doi: 10.1515/jce-2017-0014. 5. Kwon JE, Lee WS, Mintz GS, et al. Multimodality Intravascular Imaging Assessment of Plaque Erosion versus Plaque Rupture in Patients

Open access

Ioana Rodean, Elisabeta Himcinschi, Alexandra Tirca and Daniel Cernica

REFERENCES 1. Thom T, Haase N, Rosamond W, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics − 2006 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 2006;113:e85-e151. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.171600. 2. Mackay J, Mensah GA. The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke. Available at: 3. Benedek T, Mester A, Benedek A, Rat N, Opincariu D, Chitu M. Assessment of Coronary Plaque Vulnerability in Acute Coronary Syndromes

Open access

Theodora Benedek, András Mester, Annabell Benedek, Nora Rat, Diana Opincariu and Monica Chițu

REFERENCES 1. World Health Organisation, Cardiovascular disease (CVDs), 2016. Available from: . 2. Choy SY, Mintz GS. What have we learned about plaque rupture in acute coronary syndromes? CurrCardiol Rep. 2010;12:338-343. doi: 10.1007/s11886-010-0113-x. 3. Giblett JP, Brown AJ, Keevil H, Jaworski C, Hoole SP, West NE. Implantation of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds following acute coronary syndrome is associated with reduced early neointimal growth and strut coverage. EuroIntervention. 2016