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Teodora Chiţă, Monica Licker, Alexandra Sima, Adrian Vlad, Bogdan Timar, Patricia Sabo and Romulus Timar

and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Infect Dis 41: 281-288, 2005. 11. Boyko EJ, Fihn SD, Scholes D, Abraham L, Monsey B. Risk of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria among diabetic and nondiabetic postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 161: 557-564, 2005. 12. Boyko EJ, Lipsky BA. Infection and diabetes. In: Diabetes in America, 2nd Edition . Harris MI (ed). National Diabetes Data Group, Bethesda, pp 485-499, 1995. 13. Ribera MC, Pascual R, Orozco D, Pérez Barba C, Pedrera V, Gil V. Incidence and

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Borelli Zlatkov, Jean Filipov, Emil Paskalev, Boyka Markova, Yuliya Marteva-Proevska and Alexandar Kolevski

Transplantation and their Management. In: Handbook of Kidney Transplantation, ed. G. M. Danovitch, 2 ed., Boston, A Little, Brown ; 1996; 187-213. 6. Green H, Rahamimov R, Goldberg E, et al. Consequences of treated versus untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in the first year following kidney transplantation: retrospective observational study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. Springer-Verlag 2013; 32: 127-131. 7. Rubin RH, Tolkoff-Rubin NE. Antimicrobial strategies in the care of organ transplant recipients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993; 37: 619-624. 8. Maraha B

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Jatupon Krongvorakul, Surasak Phundhusuwannakul, Pitak Santanirand and Mongkol Kunakorn

References 1. Foxman B. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Am J Med. 2002; 113:5-13. 2. Juthani-Mehta M, Tinetti M, Perrelli E, Towle V, Van Ness PH, Quagliarello V. Diagnostic accuracy of criteria for urinary tract infection in a cohort of nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007; 55:1072-7. 3. Kass EH. Asymptomatic infections of the urinary tract. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1956; 69:56-63. 4. Kass EH. Bacteriuria and the diagnosis of

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Beata Chudzik-Rzad, Sylwia Andrzejczuk, Mariusz Rzad, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz and Anna Malm

. Mikrobiyol. Bul., 44, 311, 2010. 5. Bayrak O. et al.: Is single-dose fosfomycin trometamol a good alternative for asymptomatic bacteriuria in the second trimester of pregnancy? Int. Urogynecol. J., 18, 525, 2007. 6. Bocher H.W. et. al.: Bad bugs, no drugs: no ESCAPE! An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis., 48, 1, 2009. 7. Cassir N., Rolain J.M., Brouqui P.: A new strategy to fight antimicrobial resistance: the revival of old antibiotics. Front. Microbiol., 5, 1, 2014. 8

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Zefiryn Cybulski, Katarzyna Schmidt, Alicja Grabiec, Zofia Talaga, Piotr Bociąg, Jacek Wojciechowicz, Andrzej Roszak and Witold Kycler

-40. 8. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. CLSI Document M100- S17 . Vol. 27 No 1. Wayne PA; 2007. 9. Church D, Gregson D. Screening urine samples for significant bacteriuria in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Clin Microbiol Newsletter 2004; 26: 179-83. 10. Bartges JW. Diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2004; 34: 923-33. 11. Lehmann LE, Hauser S, Malinka T, Klaschik S, Weber SU, Schewe JC, et

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Jiangeng Han, Xin Wang, Zheng Chen, Ning Gao and Chen Wang

levels are associated with the adverse outcomes of diabetes with community-acquired pneumonia, such as acute respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, septic shock, long hospital stays, and ventilator maintenance time. 2.1.2 Urinary system infection Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a major risk factor for the development of symptomatic urinary tract infections, whereas emphysema pyelonephritis is almost exclusive in patients with diabetes [ 4 ]. Hirji et al . [ 8

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Xiaoming Gu

of siderophore systems to growth and urinary tract colonization of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli , Infect. Immun., 2012, 80(1), 333-344. 10.1128/IAI.05594-11 Watts R.E. Totsika M. Challinor V.L. Mabbett A.N. Ulett G.C. De Voss JJ Contribution of siderophore systems to growth and urinary tract colonization of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli Infect. Immun. 2012 80 1 333 344 [20] Himpsl S.D., Pearson M.M., Arewång C.J., Nusca T.D., Sherman D.H., Mobley H.L., Proteobactin and a yersiniabactin-related siderophore mediate iron acquisition in

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Birgit Arabin

;71(1):39-45. 45. Murphy DJ, Caukwell S, Joels LA, Wardle P. Cohort study of the neonatal outcome of twin pregnancies that were treated with prophylactic or rescue antenatal corticosteroids. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187(2):483-8. 46. Mc Donald H, Brocklehurst P, Parsons J, Vignesvaran R. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Libary. Oxford: Update Software 2003;2. 47. F. S. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Libary. Oxford: Update Software 2003

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Željko Vojvodić and Danijela Daus Šebeđak

rules, and not administrative measures. The essential advice in management of UTIs in primary care should be “keep it simple” ( 44 ) – or make treatment decisions based on simplest diagnostic tests: symptom score, nitrites and leukocyturia, avoid treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (except in pregnancy), and always prescribe nitrofurantoin or fosfomycin first, only when and if necessary. Author Contribution Both authors contributed equally to the work described in the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that no conflicts of

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Thasinas Dissayabutra, Jakkapan Rattanapan, Nuttiya Kalpongnukul, Supawadee Mingmongkol, Wattanachai Ungchareonwattana, Chanchai Boonla and Piyaratana Tosukhowong

, and obesity, is strongly associated with urinary stone disease. In this study, patients with urolithiasis tended to have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than age- and sex-matched individuals, although no significant difference was seen because of the small number of participants. Excluding the underlying diseases, G1 participants shared similar characteristics with G3 participants in sex, age, BMI, and smoking and drinking habits. A urine strip test was used to screen for microscopic hematuria to exclude asymptomatic urinary stone disease in groups