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Łukasz Łopusiewicz

2016; 15(3):392-399. 24. Łopusiewicz Ł. Isolation, characterisation and biological activity of melanin from Exidia nigri-cans. WSN 2018; 91:111-129. 25. Łopusiewicz Ł. Scleroderma citrinum melanin: isolation, purification, spectroscopic studies with characterization of antioxidant, antibacterial and light barrier properties. WSN 2018; 94:114-129. 26. Solano F. Melanins: skin pigments and much more – types, structural models, biological functions, and formation routes. New J Sci 2014. doi: 27. Zhang M, Xiao G

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Isaac J. Asiedu-Gyekye, Abdulai Seidu Mahmood, Charles Awortwe and Alexander K. Nyarko


Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is an antiseptic with antiviral and antibacterial properties used in a variety of products including wound care dressings, contact lens cleaning solutions, perioperative cleansing products, and swimming pool cleaners. There are regulatory concerns with regard to its safety in humans for water treatment. We decided to assess the safety of this chemical in Sprague-Dawley rats. PHMB was administered in a single dose by gavage via a stomach tube as per the manufacturer’s instruction within a dose range of 2 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Subchronic toxicity studies were also conducted at doses of 2 mg/kg, 8 mg/kg and 32 mg/kg body weight and hematological, biochemical and histopathological findings of the major organs were assessed. Administration of a dose of 25.6 mg/kg, i.e. 1.6 mL of 0.4% PHMB solution (equivalent to 6.4×103 mg/L of 0.1% solution) resulted in 50% mortality. Histopathological analysis in the acute toxicity studies showed that no histopathological lesions were observed in the heart and kidney samples but 30% of the animals had mild hydropic changes in zone 1 of their liver samples, while at a dosage of 32 mg/kg in the subchronic toxicity studies, 50% of the animals showed either mild hepatocyte cytolysis with or without lymphocyte infiltration and feathery degeneration. Lymphocyte infiltration was, for the first time, observed in one heart sample, whereas one kidney sample showed mild tubular damage. The acute studies showed that the median lethal dose (LD50) is 25.6 mg/kg (LC50 of 1.6 mL of 0.4% PHMB. Subchronic toxicological studies also revealed few deleterious effects on the internal organs examined, as seen from the results of the biochemical parameters evaluated. These results have implications for the use of PHMB to make water potable.

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Andrey A. Skalny, Alexey A. Tinkov, Yulia S. Medvedeva, Irina B. Alchinova, Mikhail Yu. Karganov, Olga P. Ajsuvakova, Anatoly V. Skalny and Alexandr A. Nikonorov

ligand. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and in vitro antibacterial evaluation. Eur J Med Chem 45 : 2055–2062. Bagihalli GB, Avaji PG, Patil SA, Badami PS. (2008). Synthesis, spectral characterization, in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) complexes with 1, 2, 4-triazole Schiff bases. Eur J Med Chem 43 : 2639–2649. Beck MT, Nagypal I. (1989). Complex equilibria: stability constants . Halsted Press, New York. Bernotiene R, Ivanoviene L, Sadauskiene I, Liekis A, Ivanov L. (2013

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Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr and Seyed Amir Hossein Hosseini

, Camacho-Alonso F, Gomez-Garcia F. (2011). Eff ect of curcumin and irradiation in Pe/Ca-Pj15 oral squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Odontol Scand 69: 269-273. Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK, Jagan Mohan Rao L, Sakariah KK. (1999). Antibacterial activity of turmeric oil: A byproduct from curcumin manufacture. J Agric Food Chem 47: 4297-4300. Noaparast Z, Hosseinimehr SJ. (2013). Radioprotective agents for the prevention of side eff ects induced by radioiodine-131 therapy. Future Oncology 9: 1145-1159. Polasa K, Naidu AN, Ravindranath

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Augustine Dick Essien, Godwin Christian Akuodor, Gloria Ahunna Ajoku, Anthony Uchenna Megwas, Donatus Onyebuchi Anele, Mercy Nwakaego Ezeunala and Alozie Ogwuegbu Okezie

-492. Corstiaen PC, Sosef SM. (2007). Revision of African genus Annickia. Syst Geogr Plants 77: 146-152. Dietrich L. (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archives of toxicology 54: 275-287. Essien AD, Akuodor GC, Essien EA, Asika EC, Chilaka KC, Nwadum SK (2015). Evaluation of antipyretic potential of the ethanolic leaf extract of Salacia lehmbachii Loes. Asian J Med Sci 7(2): 22-25. Essien AD, Essiet GA, Akuodor GC, Aja DO, Thomas EE (2016). Studies on gastrointestinal properties of ethanolic leaf extract

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Tarika Thumvijit, Waristha Thuschana, Doungporn Amornlerdpison, Yuwadee Peerapornpisal and Rawiwan Wongpoomchai

References Aebi H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol 105 : 121-126. Ak T, Gülçin L. (2008). Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin.Chem Biol Interact 174 : 27-37. Akerboom TP, Sies H. (1981). Assay of glutathione, glutathione disulfi de, and glutathione mixed disulfi des in biological samples. Methods Enzymol 77 : 373-382. Carlberg I, Mannervik B. (1983). Glutathione reductase assay. Methods Enzymol 113 : 484-495. Cornish ML, Garbary DJ. (2010

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Çimen Karasu, Ahmet Cumaoğlu, Ali Gúrpinar, Murat Kartal, Lucia Kovacikova, Ivana Milackova and Milan Stefek

P, Albuisson E, Boire JY, Duroux E, Bastide P, Couquelet J. (1994). Synthesis of pyridazine acetic acid derivatives possessing aldose reductase inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties. Eur J Med Chem   29 : 471-477. Das AK, Mandal SC, Banerjee SK, Sinha S, Saha BP, Pal M. (2001). Studies on the hypoglycaemic activity of Punica granatum seed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Phytother Res   15 : 628-629. Da Settimo F, Primofiore G, La Motta C, Sartini S, Taliani S, Simorini F, Marini AM, Lavecchia

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Martina Melušová, Soňa Jantová and Eva Horváthová

References Arunasree KM. (2010). Anti-proliferative eff ects of carvacrol on a human metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB 231. Phytomedicine 17: 581-588. Burt S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial propertied and potential application in foods. A review. Int J Food Microbiol 94: 223-253. Carson DA, Ribeiro JM. (1993). Apoptosis and disease. The Lancet 341: 1251-1254. Dixon RA. (2001). Natural products and plant disease resistance. Nature 411: 843-847. Foo JB, Yazan

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Ifeoluwa Temitayo Oyeyemi, Olaide Maruf Yekeen, Paul Olayinka Odusina, Taiwo Mary Ologun, Orezimena Michelle Ogbaide, Olayinka Israel Olaleye and Adekunle A. Bakare

Potential of Praziquantel (PZQ) Using Sperm Head Abnormality Test. J Hum Ecol 23 (1): 59–63. Afolayan AJ, Sharaibi OJ, Kazeem MI. (2013). Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant activity of Nymphaea lotus L. Int J Pharmacol 9 (5): 297–304. Ahmad B, Khan AA. (2013). Antibacterial, antifungal and phytotoxic activities of Luffa cylindrica and Momordica charantia. J Med Plant Res 7 (22): 1593–1599. Aitken RJ, de Iuliis GN, McLachlan RI. (2009). Biological and clinical significance of DNA damage in the male germ line. Intern J Androl

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Soňa Jantová, Dominika Topoľská, Michaela Janošková, Miroslav Pánik and Viktor Milata

cytotoxic properties of substituted N-ethyl selenadiazoloquinolones. J Phys Org Chem 26: 565-574. Bella M, Milata V. (2014). Synthesis of 9-ethyl[1,2,5]selenadiazolo[3,4-h]quinolones by the application of modifi ed Gould-Jacobs reaction to N-ethyl-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazol-4-amine. Arcivoc (v), 181-198. Dalhoff A, (2005). Immunomodulatory activities of fl uoroquinolones. Infection 33: 55-70. Dalhoff A, Shalit I. (2003). Immunomodulatory eff ects of quinolones. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3: 359-371. Darque A, Dumetre A, Hutter S