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Karolina Kraśniewska and Małgorzata Gniewosz

-300. 53. Pranoto Y., Salokhe V.M., Rakshit S.K., Physical and antibacterial properties of alginate-based edible fi lm incorporated with garlic oil. Food Res. Int., 2005, 38, 267-272. 54. Quintavalla S., Vicini L., Antimicrobial food packaging in meat industry. Meat Sci., 2002, 62, SI, 373-380. 55. Raybaudi-Massilia R.M., Mosqueda-Melgar J., Martin-Belloso O., Edible alginate - based coating as carrier of antimicrobials to improve shelf-life and safety of fresh-cut melon. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 2008, 121, 313-327. 56

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Edyta Gibas and Agnieszka Richert

experiment. Compos Part B-Eng. 105, 160-166. DOI: 10.1039/c5ra24642c. 14. Petchwattana, N., Covavisaruch, S. & Wibooranawong, S. (2016). Antimicrobial food packaging prepared from poly (butylene succinate) and zinc oxide. Measurement 93, 442-448. DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2016.07.048. 15. Kawakami, H., Yoshida, K., Nishida, Y., Kikuchi, Y. & Sato, Y. (2008). Antibacterial Properties of Metallic Elements for Alloying Evaluated with Application of JIS Z 2801:2000. ISIJ International 9, 1299-1304. DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational. 48

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Zhi-Cai Yu, Jian-Fei Zhang, Ching-Wen Lou, Hua-Ling He, An-Pang Chen and Jia-Horng Lin

with water repellent and antimicrobial Agents. Fiber Polym, 8(3), 386-392. 18. Wang, X., Yin, Y.J., Wang, C.X. (2010). New approach to impart antibacterial effect and improve ink jet printing properties with modified SiO2 sols cationic biocides. Colloid Surf A-Physicochem Eng Asp, 361(1-3), 51-55. 19. Mukhopadhyay, A., Sharma, I.C., Mohanty, A. (2003). Impact of lycra filament on extension and recovery characteristics of cotton knitted fabric, Indian J Fibre Text Res, 28(4), 423-430.

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Lia M. Junie, Mihaela L. Vică, Mirel Glevitzky and Horea V. Matei

References Alvarez-Suarez, J. M. , Tulipani, S., Daimy Díaz, D., Estevez, Y., Romandini, S., Giampieri, F., Damiani, E. , Astolfi, P., Bompadre, S., Battino, M. (2010). Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several monofloral Cuban honeys and their correlation with color, polyphenol content and other chemical compounds. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 2490-2499. Anthimidou, E., & Mossialos, D. (2013). Antibacterial activity of Greek and Cypriot honeys against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in comparison

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Paulina Rokicka, Agata Markowska-Szczupak, Łukasz Kowalczyk, Ewa Kowalska and Antoni W. Morawski

., Janczarek, M., Endo, M., Markowska-Szczupak, A., Remita, H. & Ohtani, B. (2015). Silver-modified titania with enhanced photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties under UV and visible light irradiation. Cat. Today 252, 136–142. DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2014.10.038. 26. Sütterlin, S. (2015). Aspects of Bacterial Resistance to Silver. Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine 1084. Uppsala Universitet. 27. Cheng, C.L., Sun, D.S., Chu, W.C., Tseng, Y.H., Ho, H.C., Wang, J.B., Chung, P.H., Chen, J.H., Tsai, P.J., Lin, N.T., Yu, M.S. & Chang, H.H. (2009). The effects

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Thirunavukkarasu Arunachalam, Muthukumaran Karpagasundaram and Nithya Rajarathinam

Abstract

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) were prepared using ultrasound assisted leaf extract of Prosopis juliflora acting as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The synthesized CONPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), particle size analyzer (PSA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). From the UV-Vis analysis, the optical band gap of the prepared CONPs (Eg = 3.62 eV) was slightly increased as compared to the bulk ceria (Eg = 3.19 eV). The phytochemicals in the extract reduced the particle size to 3.7 nm ± 0.3 nm, as it is evident from the PSA. FT-IR results confirmed the Ce-O stretching bands by showing the peaks at 452 cm-1. The Raman spectrumshowed a characteristic peak shift for CONPs at 461.2 cm-1. XRD analysis revealed the cubic fluorite structure of the synthesizednanoparticles with the lattice constant, a of 5.415 Å and unit cell volume, V of 158.813 Å3. XPS signals were used to determine the concentration of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the prepared CONPs and it was found that major amount of cerium exist in the Ce4+ state. HRTEM images showed spherical shaped particles with an average size of 15 nm. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the prepared CONPs was evaluated and their efficacies were compared with the conventional antibiotics using disc diffusion assay against a set of Gram positive (G+) bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia) and Gram negative (G-) bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris). The results suggested that CONPs showed antibacterial activity with significant variations due to the differences in the membrane structure and cell wall composition among the two groups tested.

Open access

Ikpa Chinyere Benardette Chinaka, Onoja Samuel Okwudili and Dozie-Akaniro Ijeoma Nkiru

References 1. Agbo, M.O., Nnadi, C.O., Ukwueze, N.N., & Okoye, F.B.C. (2014). Phenolic constituents from Platycerium bifurcatum and their antioxidatant properties. Journal of Natural Products, 7, 48-57. http://www.journalofnaturalproducts.com/Volume7/7_Res_paper-6.pdf 2. Holtum, J.A., & Winter, K. (1999). Degrees of crassulacean acid metabolism in tropical epiphytic and lithophytic ferns. Functional Plant Biology, 26 (8), 749-757. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP99001 3. Ojo, O.O., Ajayi, A.O., & Anibijuwon, I

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Łukasz Łopusiewicz

2016; 15(3):392-399. 24. Łopusiewicz Ł. Isolation, characterisation and biological activity of melanin from Exidia nigri-cans. WSN 2018; 91:111-129. 25. Łopusiewicz Ł. Scleroderma citrinum melanin: isolation, purification, spectroscopic studies with characterization of antioxidant, antibacterial and light barrier properties. WSN 2018; 94:114-129. 26. Solano F. Melanins: skin pigments and much more – types, structural models, biological functions, and formation routes. New J Sci 2014. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/498276 27. Zhang M, Xiao G

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Salar Zohoori, Masoud Latifi, Abolfazl Davodiroknabadi and Mohammad Mirjalili

., Yoshida, S., Alcaniz-Monge, J. & Linares-Solano, A. (1996). Preparation and Properties of an Antibacterial Activated Carbon Fiber Containing Mesopores. Carbon 34, 53–57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(95)00134-4 . 31. Karthikeyan Krishnamoorthy, Murugan Veerapandian, Ling-He Zhang, Kyusik Yun, and Sang Jae Kim. (2012). Antibacterial Efficiency of Graphene Nanosheets against Pathogenic Bacteria Via Lipid Peroxidation. J. Phys. Chem. C. 116, 17280–87. DOI: 10.1021/jp3047054. 32. Yongbin Zhang, Syed F. Ali, Enkeleda Dervishi, Yang Xu, Zhongrui Li

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Rukhsana Satar, Syed Ahmed Iizhar, Mahmood Rasool, Peter Natesan Pushparaj and Shakeel Ahmed Ansari

activity of water dispersable organic nanoparticles. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 506–511. DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2008.188. 7. Wan, W. & Yeow, J.T.W. (2012). Antibacterial properties of poly (quaternary ammonium) modified gold and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. J. Nan. Nanotechnol. 12(6), 4601–4606. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2012.6147 . 8. Blackburn, C.D. & Davies, A.R. (1994). Development of antibiotic-resistant strains for the enumeration of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in stored foods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 24(1–2), 125–136. DOI: 10