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Krystyna Pohorecka, Tomasz Kiljanek, Maja Antczak, Piotr Skubida, Piotr Semkiw and Andrzej Posyniak

Introduction Amitraz as a formamide insecticide and acaricide is used for the control of animal ectoparasites. It is one of the main and more commonly applied acaricides against Varroa destructor , the external parasite of honey bees ( 1 , 8 , 11 ). In beekeeping, there are two possible methods of administration of amitraz: long-lasting contact polyethylene strips saturated with the insecticide and short-lasting combustible tablets for fumigation of colonies. In Poland, chemical combat of Varroa mites is undertaken much more frequently by the second

Open access

Krystyna Pohorecka, Piotr Skubida and Piotr Semkiw

REFERENCES Bąk, B., Wilde, J., & Siuda, M. (2013). Efficiency of Varroa destructor management with medications used in Poland. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 69 (12), 744-748. Dai, P., Jack, C.J., Mortensen, A.N., Bustamante, T.A., Ellis, J.D. (2018). Chronic toxicity of amitraz, coumaphos and fluvalinate to Apis mellifera L. larvae reared in vitro. Scientific Reports, 8, 5635. Gregorc, G.A., & Bowen, I.D. (2000). Histochemical characterization of cell death in honey bee larvae midgut after treatment

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Piotr Semkiw, Piotr Skubida and Krystyna Pohorecka

-53. Chuda-Mickiewicz B., Prabucki J., Samborski J., Rostecki P. (2008) - Skuteczność zwalczania Varroa destructor paskami z amitrazą w rodzinach z czerwiem. [The effectiveness of amitraz strips in control of Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies with brood]. In Materiały z XLV Naukowej Konferencji Pszczelarskiej, Puławy, Poland, 11-12 marca, 2008 , pp. 77-79. Commission of the European Communities (2002) - Concerted Action 3686: "Coordination in Europe of research on integrated control of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies". Technical guidelines

Open access

Aleš Gregorc and Ivo Planinc

. (1999) - Use of essential oils for the control of Varroa jacobsoni (Oud.) in honey bee colonies. Apidologie, 30: 209-228. Lindberg C. M. Melathopoulos A. P., Winston M. L. (2000) - Laboratory evaluation of miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae), a honey bee Hymenoptera: Apidae) parasite. J. Econom. Entom ., 93: 189-198. Mathieu L., Faucon J. P. (2000) - Changes in the response time for Varroa jacobsoni exposed to amitraz. J. Apic. Res ., 39: 155-8. Mattila H. R., Otis G. W. (2000) - The

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Zoran Stanimirović, Uroš Glavinić, Nada Lakić, Dejan Radović, Marko Ristanić, Elmin Tarić and Jevrosima Stevanović

their residues in bee products. Apidologie 1999, 30:235-248. 8. Stanimirovic Z, Stevanovic J, Jovanovic S, Andjelkovic M: Evaluation of genotoxic effects of Apitol® (cymiazole hydrochloride) in vitro by measurement of sister chromatid exchange. Mutat Res-Gen Tox En 2005, 588:152-157. 9. Radakovic M, Stevanovic J, Djelic N, Lakic N, Knezevic-Vukcevic J, Vukovic-Gacic B, Stanimirovic Z: Evaluation of the DNA damaging effects of amitraz on human lymphocytes in the Comet assay. J Biosciences 2013, 38:53-62. 10. Milani N: The resistance of Varroa

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Mohammad Rouhani, Mohammad Samih and Majid Esmaeilizadeh

Evaluation of Effects of Two Spring Applications of Micronutrients on the Population Density of Common Pistachio Psylla (Agonoscena Pistaciae) in Pistachio Orchards

The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) is one of the most detrimental pests to pistachio trees. This pest is distributed throughout all the pistachio producing regions of Iran. Nowadays various pesticides are used to control the common pistachio psylla, but extensive pesticide spraying against this pest over a period of several years has overpowered its natural enemies. Moreover, the overlapping of generations has resulted in an abundant presence of the pest. Many herbivorous insects can make qualitative distinctions between host plants, they can feed and oviposit preferentially on higher quality plants. Cultural methods such as crop fertilization can affect the susceptibility of plants to insect pests by altering a plant tissue's nutrient level. This study tested nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) fertilizers on A. pistaciae in pistachio orchards. The experiment was based on complete randomized blocks with three replications and nine treatments including once-applied Zn, Ca, N, NCa, ZnCa, ZnN, ZnCaN, pesticide (amitraz) and a control (distilled water), on common pistachio psylla fed on 20-year-old pistachio trees of Ahmadaghaei rootstock. The results demonstrated that the effect of nutritional solutions on nymph and egg populations showed a significant difference at a 5% level. The highest measure of control on eggs was related to amitraz, ZnCa and Zn while the least was related to NZn. The results also showed that the highest measure of pest control was related to Ca while the least was related to N and Zn. The results indicated that combinations of the elements mentioned had a stronger reducing effect on the concentration of pistachio psylla nymphs than the effect pesticide had.

Open access

Wojciech Piotrowski, Barbara H. Łabanowska, Anna Galińska and Andrew G.S. Cuthbertson


The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis) is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz) used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC) became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

Open access

Bożena Szymaś, Aleksandra Łangowska and Magdalena Kazimierczak-Baryczko

midgut after treatment with Paenibacillus larvae , amitraz and oxytetracycline. Cell Biology International , 24(5): 319-324. Jimenez D. R., Gilliam M. (1990) - Ultrastructure of the ventriculus of the honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.): cytochemical localization of amid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and nonspecific esterase. Cell Tissue Res. , 261: 431-443. Kazimierczak-Baryczko M., Szymaś B. (2006) - Improvement of the composition of pollen substitute for honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.) through implementation of

Open access

Z. Siroka and Z. Svobodova

-clinical update on a novel LOX/COX inhibitor for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Rheumatology 43: i21-i25. Anadon A, Martinez-Larranaga MR, Martinez MA ( 2009 ) Use and abuse of pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids in veterinary medicine. Vet J 182: 7-20. Andrade SF, Sakate M, Laposy CB, Valente SF, Bettanim VM, Rodrigues LT, Marcicano J ( 2007 ) Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 59: 1236-1244. Asteinza J, Camacho-Carranza R, Reyes-Reyes RE, Dorado-Gonzales V, Espinoza-Aguirre JJ ( 2000

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Krystyna Pohorecka, Teresa Szczęsna, Monika Witek, Artur Miszczak and Piotr Sikorski

Chemistry, 30, 103-111. doi: 10.1002/etc.361 Chiesa, L. M., Labella, G. F., Giorgi, A., Panseri, S., Pavlovic, R., Bonacci, S., Arioli, F. (2016). The occurrence of pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in Italian organic honeys from different productive areas in relation to potential environmental contamination. Chemosphere, 154, 482-490. Commission Decision 2004/141/EC of 12 February 2004 concerning the non-inclusion of amitraz in Annex I to Council Directive 91/414/EEC and the