References Acton L. 2010. Allotment Garden: A Reflection of History, Heritage, Community and Self. ( www.pia-journal.co.uk ). Andriotis K. 2006. Host, guests and politics, coastal resorts morphological change. Ann. of Tourism Research , 33, 4: 1079-1098. Armstrong D. 2000. A survey of community garden in upstate New York: implications for health promotion and community development. Health and Place , 6, 4: 319-327. Arnhold V. H. 1959-1960. Funktionswandel des Kleingartens Ein funktionales und soziales Problem . Berichte zur Deutschen
Wanda Kononowicz and Katarzyna Gryniewicz-Balińska
Since about the mid-nineteenth century, together with the changing socio-economic situation, different types of allotments appeared in Wrocław. Initially, they were rented gardens, gardens for the poor or for factory workers. At the beginning of the twentieth century, school gardens and the so called Schreber gardens with a large common square were set up as part of Dr. Schreber’s educational health program. In 1914-1918, “war” vegetable gardens were commonly cultivated. In the 1920s allotment gardens began to be systematically introduced to the city plan as permanent, purposefully designed elements of urban greenery. They were often designed together with urban parks, or so called “Folk Parks” of a recreational and sport character. In the 1930s, during the economic crisis, allotments with garden houses were adapted for the unemployed and the homeless to live in. Wrocław allotment gardens have undeniable historical, social, recreational, economic and compositional value. These gardens are a cultural heritage that should be protected. In Western Europe we are witnessing a renaissance of the idea of allotments, while in Poland - a tendency to eliminate them from urban landscapes.
Lidia Poniży and Kamila Stachura
References Act of 3 February 1995 on agricultural and forested land protection. Dz. U. 1995 No.16 item 78. Borysiak J., Mizgajski A., Speak A., 2016. Floral biodiversity of allotment gardens and its contribution to urban green infrastructure. Urban Ecosystems 2016. DOI 10.1007/ s11252-016-0595-4 Breuste J., 2010. Allotment gardens as part of urban green infrastructure: actual trends and perspectives in Central Europe. In: Müller N., Werner P., Kelcey J., (eds), Urban biodiversity and design-Implementing the
D., Ward C. 2007. The allotment: its landscape and culture . Five Leaves Publ., Nottingham, GB. Czarnecki W., 1968. Krajobraz i tereny zielone. [in:] Planowanie miast i osiedli , 3, PWN, Warszawa-Poznań. Drescher A.W. 2001. The German Allotment Gardens – a Model for Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Southern African Cities? Proc. of the Sub-Regional Expert Meeting on Urban Horticulture . FAO/University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Duś E. 1990. Ogrodnictwo działkowe w Górnośląskim Okręgu Przemysłowym. Geogr. Stud. et dissert. , 14: 93
Lucie Sovová and Radoslava Krylová
References: AGERIS (2006): Vyhodnocení zahrádkářských lokalit na území města Brna. Brno, Ageris. ALLEN, A. (2003): Environmental Planning and Management of the Peri-Urban Interface: Perspectives on an Emerging Field. Environment and Urbanization, 15(1): 135–148. ANDERSSON, K., SJÖBLOM, S., GRANBERG, L., EHRSTRÖM, P., MARSDEN, T. [eds.] (2016): Metropolitan Ruralities. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. BELLOWS, A. C. (2004): One hundred years of allotment gardens in Poland. Food & Foodways, 12: 247–276. BERRY, B. J. L. [ed
Barbara Maćkiewicz, Raúl Puente Asuero and Antonio Garrido Almonacid
://habitat.aq.upm.es/boletin/n47/anmor.html Opitz I., Specht K., Berges R., Siebert R., Piorr A., 2016. Toward sustainability: Novelties, areas of learning and innovation in urban agriculture. Sustainability 8(4): 356–373. Pearson L., Pearson L., Pearson C., 2010. Sustainable urban agriculture: Stocktake and opportunities, International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 8(1–2): 7–19. Pourias J., 2015. Urban allotment gardens in the city in crisis. Insights from Sevilla (Spain) . Short Report on the Short Term Scientific Mission. COST Action Urban Allotment Gardens in
Stanisław Właśniewski and Edmund Hajduk
Akumulacja Kadmu W Glebach I Wybranych Warzywach Uprawianych W Ogrodach Działkowych Rzeszowa
In this paper, the total and phytoavailable form of copper in allotment garden in Zielona Góra are presented. Soil samples were collected from eight places in the allotments gardens and two samples from outside in the neighbourhood. The total content of copper varied from 2.58 to 16.23 mg · kg-1. The form of copper potentially avail-able for plants varied from 0.2 to 3.85 mg · kg-1. The total content of copper meets the requirements of Directive by the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of the 21st March 2002 on the acceptable content of heavy metals in soils and Directive by the Minister of the Environment of the 9th September 2002 on the standards of soil quality and the standards of land quality
Zane Vincēviča-Gaile and Dāvis Varakājs
Concentration of trace and major elements is an important indicator of nutritional value of food, also regarding cultivated food crops like fruits, berries, and vegetables. Concentration of elements differs regionally and is influenced by various factors. Nevertheless, some chemical elements (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, etc.) are known as environmental pollutants and may affect the quality and safety of crops and food products. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of potentially toxic elements like Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in samples of berries grown in allotment gardens of Rīga city. Dried and homogenised samples of raspberries, strawberries, red currants, black currants, gooseberries, and cherries were mineralised in a solution of concentrated HNO3/H2O2 by heating on a thermoblock. Quantitative analysis of sample solutions was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Potentially toxic elements were in concentrations as follows: Fe > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Cd. Mean concentrations of the elements of the major concern were: Ni 0.54 mg/kg, Pb 0.20 mg/kg, Cr 0.10 mg/kg, and Cd 0.03 mg/kg. Results indicated significant variability of element concentration among the species.
The Polish National General Exhibition (PWK, also known as “Pewuka”) was held in Poznań in 1929. It was meant to be and it did become a showcase of the economic, industrial, social and cultural achievements of the Polish State, newly reborn in 1918, in the aftermath of the Great War. Staging of the Exhibition coincided with the advent of the economic crisis. Preparations for the Exhibition required an enormous amount of work, and considerable investments were needed to build a suitable infrastructure. Poznań became a huge building site, with many labourers coming to the city in search of employment. After 1929 those labourers added to the large group of the unemployed in the aftermath of the great economic crisis. During the 1930s the unemployment and the related problems aggravated the housing crisis in Poznań. The city authorities attempted to resolve this problem by putting the homeless up in the former exhibition grounds recently vacated following the closure of the Polish National General Exhibition. It was only an interim measure. In search of a more permanent solution, the city started to redevelop allotments or community gardens by building purpose-built residential garden huts or sheds.