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Małgorzata Zięba, Anna Małysa, Tomasz Wasilewski and Marta Ogorzałek

Softener Technology: A Review. Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, 18(2) 199-204. [4] Parvinzedeh M., Hajiraissi R. (2008). Effect of nano and micro emulsion silicone softeners on properties of polyester fibers. Tenside Surf. Det. 45(5), 254-257. [5] Pathiban M., Kumar M.R. (2007). Effect of fabric softener on thermal comfort of cotton and polyester fabrics. Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, 32, 446-452. [6] Montazer M., Hashemikia S. (2012). Application of polyurethane/citric acid/silicone softener composite on cotton/polyester knitted

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D. Hoffmann and El. Wynder

Abstract

The following points were established by smoking experiments and screening tests using an inert gas phase with phenol for testing the adsorption capacity of filter materials. 1.Secondary cellulose acetate filters of commercial cigarettes exhibit an adsorption capacity for phenols from the smoke in the range of 60 to 72 per cent. Of this adsorptive capacity, approximately one half may be considered as specific adsorption of phenols as defined in text.2.Increased ''selective'' adsorption for phenols is obtained when polyethylene glycol is dusted on filter fibers of cellulose secondary acetate. When cellulose secondary acetate fiber is dusted with secondary acetate powder the removal of both phenol and particulate matter is increased significantly. 3.A cellulose triacetate with a grainy surface is superior to cellulose acetates with regular surfaces as a phenol adsorbing filter.4.Plasticizers improve phenol adsorption capacity. With the passage of time, diffusion and other yet undefined effects lessen their value. Suggestions have been made in terms of fiber structure and use of plasticizers which can lead to further improvement of filters in respect to phenol removal. It is possible to reduce the phenol in cigarette smoke up to 90 per cent through the use of selected filter fibers and plasticizers.5.The amounts of particulate matter and phenol released during the smoking of three equal (20 mm) sections of filter and non-filter cigarettes were determined in the mainstream smoke. When a filter cigarette is smoked down, increasing amounts of phenol are released from the tobacco and the ''selective'' adsorption of phenol by secondary cellulose acetate filter increases

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Urszula Narkiewicz, Anna Pietrasz, Iwona Pełech and Walerian Arabczyk

., Joly, J. P., Gaillard, F. & Delecroix, V. (2002). Dynamic adsorption on activated carbons of SO 2 traces in air I. Adsorption capacities. Carbon 40, 2235-2246. DOI:10.1016/S0008-6223(02)00108-2. Bandosz, T. J. (2006). Carbonaceous materials as desulfurization media, Combined and Hybrid Adsorbents. NATO Security through Science Series 145-164. DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-5172-7_16. Gaur, V., Asthana, R. & Verman, N. (2006). Removal of SO 2 by activated carbon fibers in the presence of O 2 and H 2 O. Carbon 44, 46

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M. Lutyński

Interface Sci. 259 (1), 133-138 (2003). [11] F. Stoeckli, T.A. Centeno, A.B. Fuertes, and J. Mu˜niz, “Porous structure of polyarylamide-based activated carbon fibres”, Carbon 34 (10), 1201-1206 (1996). [12] M.C. Blanco Lopez, A. Martıˇenez-Alonso, and J.M.D. Tascon, “Microporous texture of activated carbon fibres prepared from Nomex aramid fibres”, Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 34 (2), 171-179 (2000). [13] C.L. Mangun, K.R. Benak, J. Economy, and K.L. Foster, “Surface chemistry, pore sizes and adsorption properties of

Open access

Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini, Norulaina Alias and Mohd. Azizi Che Yunus

removal. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 1(4), 1091–1098. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2013.08.026. 9. Langmuir, I. (1916). The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part 1. Solid. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 38(11), 2221–2295. DOI: 10.1021/ja02268a002. 10. Langmuir, I. (1918). The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40(9), 1361–1403. DOI: 10.1021/ja02242a004. 11. Freundlich, H.M.F. (1906). About the adsorption in solution (Uber die adsorption in losungen). Z. Phys. Chem. 57A, 385–470. 12. Redlich, O

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Justyna Karolczyk, Sylwia Mozia, Antoni W. Morawski and Jacek Przepiórski

rapid adsorption kinetics for removing humic acids. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 58, 131-135. DOI: 10.1016/S1387-1811(02)00611-X. 25. Yue, Z., Mangun, C.L. & Economy, J. (2004). Characterization of surface chemistry and pore structure of H3PO4- -activated poly(vinyl alcohol) coated fiberglass. Carbon 42, 1973-1982. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2004.03.030. 26. Tamai, H., Yoshida, T., Sasaki, M. & Yasuda, H. (1999). Dye adsorption on mesoporous activated carbon fiber obtained from pitch containing yttrium complex. Carbon 37, 983-989. DOI

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Piotr Nowicki, Wiktor Szymanowski and Robert Pietrzak

., Skibiszewska, P. & Pietrzak, R. (2013). NO 2 removal on adsorbents prepared from coffee industry waste materials. Adsorption 19, 521–528. DOI: 10.1007/s10450-013-9474-y. 9. Alcañiz-Monge, J. & Illán-Gómez, M.J. (2008). Modification of activated carbon porosity by pyrolysis under pressure of organic compounds. Adsorption 14, 93–100. DOI: 10.1007/s10450-007-9056-y. 10. Khalil, S.H., Aroua, M.K. & Wan Daud, W.M.A. (2012). Study on the improvement of the capacity of amine-impregnated commercial activated carbon beds for CO 2 adsorbing. Chem. Eng. J. 183, 15

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Jacek Przepiórski, Adam Czyżewski, Joanna Kapica and Miguel de la Casa-Lillo

References Cambridge Filter Japan, Ltd. (2009). Product information. Received May 16, 2009, from http://www.cambridgefilter.com/english/productsE/tcc-en/tcc-en.htm Liu, Z.-S. (2008). Adsorption of SO 2 and NO from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers. Waste Manage. , 28, 2329-2335. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2007.10.013. Aroua, M.K., Daud, W.M.A.A., Yin, C.Y. & Adinata, D. (2008). Adsorption capacities of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and methane on carbon molecular

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A. Kausar

determination of uricase adsorption capacity and activity. Applied Surface Science 256 (2010) 6710-6716. 4. Li, P., Wang, Z., Yang, L., Zhao, S., Song, P., Khan, B.: A novel loose-NF membrane based on the phosphorylation and cross-linking of polyethyleneimine layer on porous PAN UF membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 555 (2018) 56-68. 5. Kausar, A., Ullah, W., Muhammad, B., Siddiq, M.: Novel mechanically stable, heat resistant and nonflammable functionalized polystyrene/expanded graphite nanocomposites. Advances in Materials Science 14 (2014) 61-74. 6

Open access

Iwona Rypińska and Marta Biegańska

, 232-237. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2008.12.032. 12. Zvinowanda, C.M., Okonkwoa, J.O., Sekhula, M.M., Agyei, N.M. & Sadiku, R. (2009). Application of maize tassel for the removal of Pb, Se,Sr,U and V from borehole water contaminated with mine wastewater in the presence of alkaline metals, J. Hazard. Mater. 164, 884-891. DOI: 10.1016/j. jhazmat.2008.08.110. 13. Teles de Vasconcelos, L.A. & Gonzalez Beca, C.G. (1999). Chemical activation of pine bark to improve its adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions. Part 1: by acid treatment, Eur