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Ondřej Hora

REFERENCES Betcherman, G., Olivas, K., & Dar, A. (2004). Impacts of Active Labor Market Programs: New Evidence from Evaluations with Particular Attention to Developing and Transition Countries . Washington, DC: Social Protection Unit, World Bank. Brown, A., & Koettl, J. (2012). Active Labour Market Programs: Employment Gain or Fiscal Drain? Bonn: The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Bussi, M. (2014). The Youth Guarantee in Europe . Brussels: ETUC. Caliendo, M., Kopeinig, S. (2005). Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation

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Vědunka Kopečná

in DE (W). Journal of the European Economic Association , 9 (4), 742-784. Manning, A. (2008). Differences-in-Differences and A Brief Introduction to Panel Data. Lectures on London School of Economics. O’Higgins, N. (2015). Youth Unemployment. IZA Policy Paper No. 103. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. Pecáková, I. (2007). Logistická regrese s vícekategoriální vysvětlovanou proměnnou. Acta Oeconomica Pragensia . 15(1), p. 86-96. Rinne, U., Schneider, M. and Uhlendorff, A. (2011). Do the skilled and prime-aged unemployed benefit more

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Vasile Alecsandru Strat, Laura Trofin and Irina Lonean

Youth Guarantee European Commission, DG REGIO (2013). Evalsed Sourcebook. Dima, M.A. and Vasilache, S. (2016). Trends in the internationalization of European higher education in a convergence perspective, Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society, 11(2), pp. 449-457 DOI: 10.1515/mmcks2016-0008 Eurofound, 2016. Exploring the diversity of NEETs, Publications Office of the European Union European Court of Auditors (ECA) (2017). Special report. Youth unemployment - have EU policies made a difference? An

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Tamás Sós

vocational training at home? Retrieved from www.portfolio.hu Kajdy, J. (2015). With student contract and co-operation in the world of work. MKIK. Köllő, J. (2011). From the so called shortage of skilled workers to dual training. Retrieved from www.tarki-tudok.hu Lannert, J. (1997). Vocational training at crossroads. Educatio, (3), 603-606. Liskó, I. (2008). Vocational education and dropping-out. In Green Book. For the reform of the Hungarian public education (pp. 95-119). Matheika, Z. (2013). The characteristics of youth

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Grzegorz Bielec

Variants of Development of Sports Career of 11-Year-Old Female Swimmers

Introduction. The development of a sporting career takes a course within a phased manner, the various stages are characterized by different goals and tasks. In competitive swimming there are many cases of athletes who achieved high sporting results in the category of children and youths and who soon after abandoned their interest in training. The aim of this study was to find the association between the sports achievements of 11-year-old girls competing in the 200 m backstroke events and their sports level in the subsequent years of their career. Material and methods. The results of the sporting careers of girls who ranked from 1st to 20th in the 200 m backstroke event in the Polish Correspondence Championships for 10 and 11-Year-Old Children in 2003 were presented. Their positions taken in subsequent editions of the summer Polish championship till 2009 were the criterion of their career development. An analysis of documents was used as a scientific method. The basis for the analysis were post-competition protocols listed on the official website of the Polish Swimming Federation. Results. Only 30% of the examined athletes took part in all main events intended for their age. Less than half of them participated in the Polish 17-18-Year-Old Junior Championships organized within the Nationwide Juvenile Olympics. 40% of the girls from the studied group ended their careers before the age of 15. Four basic variants of development of a sporting career were observed in the group. Conclusions. After analyzing the athletes' careers it can be stated that a high position in the national ranking of 11-year-olds does not guarantee significant sporting achievements in later years. In the studied group of girls the stroke and distance specialization had changed in most cases (80%).

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Alexandra Patricia Braica

students 6. Law no. 76/2002 on the unemployment insurance system and stimulating employment, as amended and supplemented, 7. Law no. 62/2011 Law of Social Dialogue 8. G.D. no. 1071/2013 on the approval of the National Strategy for Employment 2014-2020 and the Action Plan for 2014-2020 9. The memorandum entitled: Approval of the Youth Guarantee Implementation of Plan 2014-2015, adopted in the Government Meeting of 23.12.2013 10. 2013 World Bank Report Europe 2020: Evidence-based Policies for Productivity

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Krystian Rubajczyk and Andrzej Rokita

qualify for CLJ through elimination receive the financial and logistic support that enables them to organize games in distant locations. The players at the CLJ knockout stage represent 0.39-0.78% (78-154 out of 19 800) of all junior-level soccer players (U20). Only the players at the highest level are selected for the under 17 years old (U17) and under 21 years old (U21) national teams. Although participation in the youth national teams does not guarantee later success, the early maturers have dominated national youth teams ( Ostojic et al., 2014 ). In line with

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Mariya Riekkinen

of 28 June 1995 No. 98-FZ On State Support of the Youth and Children Associations. In: Sobranie zakonodate'lstva Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Compilation of Legislation of the Russian Federation) , 1995, no. 27, item 2503. The Federal Law of 10 April 2000 No. 51-FZ On the Affirmation of the Federal Programme on Development of Education. In: Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Compilation of Legislation of the Russian Federation) , 2000, no. 16, item 1639. The Law of the Russian Federation of 10 July

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Fernando Claver, Ruth Jiménez, Alexander Gil-Arias, Alberto Moreno and M. Perla Moreno

participation of all players in the reflection. The intervention program was comprised of 24 sessions held over a three-month period, as recommended for intervention research in youth athletes ( García-Calvo et al., 2015 ; García-González et al., 2013 ; Gil-Arias et al., 2015 ; Tomporowski et al., 2015 ). Two weekly sessions were held, each of them lasting for two hours. During the program application, the development of the training sessions was monitored in detail (using a checklist to control it) in order to guarantee that the cognitive-motivational strategies of the

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Alba Práxedes, Alberto Moreno, Luis García-González, David Pizarro and Fernando Del Villar

Introduction To guarantee equality in competition and provide young people with the same success opportunities, in sport, athletes are grouped into different game categories based on their chronological age ( Musch and Groundin, 2001 ). However, using this criterion does not seem adequate given that there is 12 months’ difference between the youngest and the oldest athletes. In this sense, and because considerable anthropometric and physiological changes take place during adolescence, an athlete born in January (relatively older) will have one year