References Bachelard, G., 1938/2004, La formation de l’esprit scientifique , Paris: Vrin. Bakhtin, M., 1992, Contemporary Vitalism (1926), translation in F. Burwick & P. Douglass, eds., The crisis in modernism. Bergson and the vitalist controversy , 76–97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bechtel, W. & Richardson, R.C., 1998, Vitalism. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy , 639–643. London: Routledge. Bedau, M.A., 2010, An Aristotelian account of minimal chemical life. Astrobiology , 10(10), 1011–1020. Bernard, C., 1878
Cécilia Bognon-Küss, Bohang Chen and Charles T. Wolfe
Yordan D. Tarpomanov and Maria P. Kukleva
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Vital values as perceived by Max Scheler and José Ortega y Gasset
Contemporary mass culture is such that it now demands that one takes care of their body. The cult of the body has dominated our actions to such an extent that, oftentimes, the value of a person is perceived in terms of his or her physical perfection. However, the modern cult of the body cannot be seen as a revival of the ancient Greek concept of kalos kagathos. Today's culture, while coaxing people into tending to their body's needs, mystifies that very care. The question therefore arises whether the cult of the body upholds the value of body or whether it, in fact, denies it.
Facing such a paradox, one may first question what significance the body itself has. Here, Max Scheler's concept of nobleness seems to be an alternative to the extremes represented in the philosophy of the body by both the traditional schools, more in line with Plato, and between those with more contemporary, somatocentric tendencies. As such, this antagonism between the noble and the ordinary constitutes one of the core issues in the demonstration of a human's vital values, values connected with maintaining life and health, in both the physical and mental aspects.
This paper aims at presenting the range and specificity of such vital values and their influence on human activities. Scheler draws a clear demarcation line between those values which are vital and those which are hedonistic and utilitarian. His concept of vital values assumes that they encompass the widely understood ideas of physical culture, health promotion and ecology. He does not reduce the vital values when compared to those hedonistic, but underlines their autonomy and grants them a high standing in the hierarchy of values. While considering Scheler's philosophy of vital values, this paper will also set them in the context of Ortega y Gasset's speculation on values.
Güner Çiçek, Abdullah Güllü, Esin Güllü and Faruk Yamaner
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aerobic and core strength exercises on forced vital capacity in sedentary women. A total of 40 healthy sedentary women (20 in an aerobic-step group and 20 in a core strength exercise group) with a mean age of 34.4±2.4 years participated voluntarily in this study. Two different exercises were applied to the women for 12 weeks, 4 days a week, at the intensity of 70% for 60 minutes. The women's resting heart rate (RHR), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced air volume in the first second of forced expiration (FEV1) were measured before and after exercise. For statistical analysis, the Paired Samples-t test was used for intra-group evaluations, and the Independent Samples-t test was used for inter-group evaluations. After the exercise program, significant increases were found in the VO2max, FVC, and FEV1 values, while both groups experienced a decreased RHR (p<0.01). Since the aerobic and forced vital capacities of the sedentary women show a parallel increase as a result of the applied 12-week aerobic and core strength exercises, it can be said that the RHR, VO2maxmax, FEV, and FEV1 respiratory parameters also improved in a positive manner. For this reason, it may be advisable to apply both exercise types for the development of the aerobic and vital capacities of sedentary women.
Nowadays, the use of remote monitoring and transmission of vital parameters became extremely common, because these systems reduce the degree of risk among ill people and provide an additional time necessary for the intervention teams - in case of emergency action. Generally, these devices monitor and transmit data as values of blood pressure and the heart rate. This equipment permanently worn by the ill people have as sources of electric energy supply batteries or accumulators. The behavior of batteries and the parameters measurement for different operating states are defined as particularly important analyses, especially in terms of voltage and time. In this article we have analyzed two types of batteries (Lithium-Ion and Nickel-Metal Hydride) with different characteristics, using a monitoring device that measures the depth of discharge (DOD) while under load in our biomedical system. The battery characterizations were made while the system was operating measuring the body signs and transmitting the data.
Mariela P. Tsanova, Neshka A. Manchorova-Veleva, Nonka G. Mateva and Snejana Ts. Tsanova
Background: Dental applications of CAD/CAM concept have been available for almost 30 years. They have allowed dentists to work with novel materials with better properties. One of these materials is zirconia ceramic.
Aim: To evaluate prospectively the longevity of CAD/CAM indirect zirconia restorations of severely destroyed vital molars and to study the risk factors associated with restoration failures.
Materials and methods: Thirty-two indirect zirconia restorations were made in 19 patients. The treated teeth were extremely destroyed vital molars. Thermal and electrical tests for pulp vitality were performed for all teeth. Radiographs were made pre-operatively, post-operatively, and at the 6-month recall. Cvar and Ryge criteria were used for direct clinical evaluation of each restoration at the 6-month recall.
Results: All 32 zirconia restorations were evaluated at 6 months. As per Cvar and Ryge criteria, discrepancies were found in two of the cases: postoperative sensitivity in only one of the teeth immediately after cementing the restoration; a partial fracture of one of the restorations after six months. Good marginal and gingival adaptation of the indirect restorations, good periodontal condition and no peri-apical lesions were observed clinically and radiographically. The thermal and electrical pulp tests were within the normal range for vital posterior teeth.
Conclusions: The present study suggests that the new restorative zirconia materials are promising clinical alternative. They can give the clinicians a broader scope of opportunities in the treatment of their patients, aiming at more sustained and improved results.
Rareş Georgescu, Orsolya Bauer, Marius Coroş, Rareş Barbat, Daniela Podeanu, Adela Oprea, Andreea Păscutoi, Adrian Naznean and Simona Stolnicu
Introduction: Sentinel node biopsy is the gold standard for axillary assessment of patients with breast cancer without axillary metastases on clinical and radiological examination. Internationally accepted biopsy methods currently use a radioactive tracer (Te) or different variations of vital stain, or the combination of the two. Due to the high cost of technical and organizational difficulty related to the radioactive material, as well as the disadvantages of using the vital stain method, great effort is being made to find alternative solutions. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the exclusive use of vital stain versus the radioactive isotope, and the need to use the combined method. A second goal was the comparative analysis of the radioactive method and intraoperative assessment of suspicious (non-sentinel) lymph nodes.
Materials and methods: This article is based on a prospective nonrandomized study conducted on 69 patients with early breast cancer in whom the combined method was used (injection of radionuclide and methylene blue vital stain). The comparatively monitored parameters were the following: the total and mean number of excised sentinel lymph nodes, the number of metastatic ganglia revealed by the 2 methods, and the risk of understaging in case only one technique was used.
Results: We excised 153 sentinel nodes identified by the radioisotope method. Of these only 56 were stained with methylene blue (p <0.0001). We could also identify a significantly higher number of metastatic nodes with the aid of the radioactive method (p = 0.0049). Most importantly, a significant number of patients (57.14%) who would have been declared node-negative using vital staining could only be properly staged using the radionuclide or the combined method. On microscopic examination of 35 non-sentinel lymph nodes, we found 3 lymph nodes with metastases, and in 1 case the metastases were found only in the non-sentinel lymph node.
Conclusions: Given the risk of understaging, exclusive use of the vital stain method is not recommended, especially under the ASGO Z 00011 Protocol, since the more accurate determination of the number of metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in a patient influences the decision whether to perform lymphadenectomy or not. Using the combined method confers benefits only during the learning curve, in our database we found no stained nodes which were not radioactive. It is very important that the intraoperative stage uses the radioactive method and the intraoperative assessment of suspicious lymph nodes, because 35 non-sentinel lymph nodes were identified in our study, 3 of which had metastases, while in 1 case the metastases were in the non-sentinel lymph node.
J. Twardoń, W. Zalewski, T. Nowicki, B. Dębski, G. Dejneka, J. Mrowiec and K. Zalewski
The paper presents investigations of the relationship between the biochemical parameters and vital signs in dairy cows. We analyzed the welfare and functioning of a dairy herd using biochemical parameters and vital signs. Life and biochemical parameters were examined. In the model indicators useful for monitoring the herd are: the age of the cows, the number of cows’ lactating, daily amount of received milk, length of lactation period for cows in the herd, the length of inter-calving period for cows, the number of days to effective insemination, the amount of protein in the feed, the level of β-oxidation in leucocytes, glucose transport through red blood cells and plasma insulin. Based on the results the mathematical model was designed allowing the presentation of a cybernetic model of cow’s organism. There was constructed a multi-equation model which determined the relationships between the selected variables describing the state of dairy cows in the herd and variables that characterize their welfare with its statistical verification.