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Pei-yan Zhang, Si-min Yao, Fan Zhang, Ming-xia Zhang, Wei Li, Jing Yuan, Xin-chun Chen and Bo-ping Zhou

Chinese population. J Viral Hepat 2009;16:775-783. 9 Zhang JY, Zhang Z, Lin F, Zou ZS, Xu RN, Jin L, et al. Interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T cells increase with severity of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2010;51:81-91. 10 Zhang JY, Song CH, Shi F, Zhang Z, Fu JL, Wang FS. Decreased ratio of Treg cells to Th17 cells correlates with HBV DNA suppression in chronic hepatitis B patients undergoing entecavir treatment. PLoS One 2010;5:e13869. 11 Piao RL, Liu YY, Tian D, Ma ZH, Zhang M, Zhao C, Niu

Open access

E. Krasimirova and D. Kyurkchiev

-fibrillarin antibodies in systemic sclerosis. – Rheumatology (Oxford), 40, 2001, № 10, 1157-1162. 8. Fleischmajer R., J. S. Perlish et J. R. Reeves. Cellular infiltrates in scleroderma skin. – Arthritis Rheum, 20, 1977, № 4, 975-984. 9. Agarwal S. K., M. Wu, C. K. Livingston et al. Toll-like receptor 3 upregulation by type I interferon in healthy and scleroderma dermal fibroblasts. – Arthritis Research and Therapy, 13, 2011, № 1, R3. 10. Burt R. K., S. J. Shah, K. Dill K et al. Autologous non-myeloablative haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation compared with pulse

Open access

Yuting Wang

Publishing House, 2013: 88-89. 14 Cao X, Xiong S, Yao Z. Medical immunology . Sixth Edition. Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House, 2013: 91. 15 Sakaguchi S, Yamaguchi T, Nomura T, et al . Regulatory T cells and immune tolerance. Cell, 2008, 5(9): 775-787. 16 Tosolini M, Kirilovsky A, Mlecnik B, et al . Clinical impact of different classes of infiltrating T cytotoxic and helper cells (Th1, th2, treg, th17) in patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Res, 2011, 71(12): 63-71. 17 Fontenot JD, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY, et al . Foxp3 programs the

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Lamija Zecevic, Jasenko Karamehic, Jozo Coric, David Stubljar, Nesina Avdagic, Kenan Selmanovic, Tomislav Jukic and Sinisa Savic

Activity Index SLICC, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics SPE, specificity TCR, T-cell receptor Treg, T regulatory cells References 1. D’Cruz DP, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet 2007; 369 (9561): 587–96. 2. Choi J, Kim ST, Craft J. The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus: an update. Curr Opin Immunol 2012; 24: 651–7. 3. Castro C, Gourley M. Diagnostic testing and interpretation of tests for autoimmunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010; 125: 238–47. 4. Tomioka R, Tani K, Sato K

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Claudia Salvadori, Tanja Svara, Guido Rocchigiani, Francesca Millanta, Darja Pavlin, Maja Cemazar, Ursa Lampreht Tratar, Gregor Sersa, Natasa Tozon and Alessandro Poli

-human Foxp3 T-reg lymphocytes Monoclonal Mouse (7979) Affymetrix eBioscience, san Diego, CA USA 1:100 Triss-EDTA pH9 Anti-human CD68 Macrophages Monoclonal Mouse (PG-M1) Thermo Scientific, Chesire, UK 1:100 Proteinase K Anti-human Ki-67 Proliferating cells Monoclonal Mouse (610538) BD Biosciences, Wyckoff, NJ, USA5 1:100 Citrate buffer pH6 Anti-human Bcl-2 Antiapoptotic protein Monoclonal Mouse (610538) BD Biosciences, Wyckoff, NJ, USA5 1:100 Citrate buffer pH6 Anti-human Von Willebrand Factor

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Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Rafał Buryta and Robert Nowak

-induced muscle damage that can result in a release of inflammatory signalling molecules and myocellular enzymes into the blood plasma ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). Some of the most important components of the immune system are B and T lymphocytes. A number of T cell subsets, e.g. T naïve, T memory, T helper/inducer (Th), T suppressor/cytotoxic (Tc), T regulatory (Treg) has been described. A common feature of these cells is an expression of membrane surface receptors including T-cell receptor (TCR), CD3 and CD2. Taking the functionality into account, the Th (CD4 + ) cells are

Open access

Hakki Yilmaz, M. Cakmak, B. Ceydilek, C. Demir and A. Aktas

-dependent manner. J Immunol 182, 6121-6128, 2009. Collison LW, Chaturvedi V, Henderson AL, Giacomin PR, Guy C, Bankoti J, Finkelstein D, Forbes K, Workman CJ, Brown SA, Rehg JE, Jones ML, Ni HT, Artis D, Turk MJ, Vignali DA. IL-35-mediated induction of a potent regulatory T cell population. Nat Immunol 11, 1093-1101, 2010. Effraimidis G, Wiersinga WM. Mechanisms in endocrinology: autoimmune thyroid disease: old and new players. Eur J Endocrinol 170, R241-R252, 2014. Fehervari Z, Sakaguchi S. CD4+ Tregs and immune control. J

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Tatjana Zaķe, Sandra Skuja, Aivars Lejnieks, Valērija Groma and Ilze Konrāde

disease: Old and new players. Eur. J. Immunol. , 170 (6), R241–R252. Fang, S., Huang, Y., Zhong, S., Li, Y., Zhang, Y., Li, Y., Sun, J., Liu, X., Wang, Y., Zhang, S., Xu, T., Sun, X., Gu, P., Li, D., Zhou, H., Li, B., Fan, X. (2017). Regulation of orbital fibrosis and adipogenesis by pathogenic Th17 cells in Graves orbitopathy, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. , 102 , 4273–4283 Fasching, P., Stradner, M., Graninger, W., Dejaco, C., Fessler, J. (2017). Therapeutic potential of targeting the Th17/Treg axis in autoimmune disorders. Molecules , 22 , 134

Open access

Ali Khalili, Soheil Ebrahimpour, Iradj Maleki, Saeid Abediankenari and Mousa Mohammadnia Afrouzi

REFERENCES 1. FLOYD DN, LANGHAM S, SÉVERAC HC, LEVESQUE BG. The economic and quality-of-life burden of Crohn’s disease in Europe and the United States, 2000 to 2013: a systematic review . Digestive diseases and sciences. 2015; 60 (2):299-312. 2. EBRAHIMPOUR S, SHAHBAZIM, KHALILI A, TAHOORI MT, ZAVARAN HOSSEINI A, AMARI A, et al . Elevated levels of IL-2 and IL-21 produced by CD4+ T cells in inflammatory bowel disease . J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017; 31 (2):279-87. 3. HASANJANI RM, BAYANI M, SOLEIMANI AS, MOHAMMADNIA-AFROUZI M, NOURI H

Open access

M. Gulubova, J. Ananiev, M. Ignatova and K. Halacheva

References 1. Romagnani S. Human Th17 cells. Arthritis Research and Therapy 2008;10:206-2013. 2. Romagnani S, Maggi E, Liotta F, Cosmi L, Annunziato F. Properties and origin of human Th17 cells. Molecular Immunology 2009;47:3-7. 3. Zhu J, Yamane H, Paul WE. Differentiation of effector CD4 T cell populations. Annu Rev Immunol 2010;28:445-489. 4. Cosmi L, Maggi L, Santarlasci V, Liotta F, Annunziato F. T helper cells plasticity in inflammation. Cytometry Part A 2014;85A;36-42. 5