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Hans-Jürgen P. Walter

Abstract

The author exemplifies the congruency of essential foundations between the critical realism of the Berlin School of Gestalt Psychology (Gestalt theory) and Nicolai Hartmann`s Critical Ontology. For instance, this congruency manifests in the importance given to critical-realistic epistemology - purified from idealistic prejudices, not least prejudices such as production-theoretical ones - connected with an unconditional phenomenology. Altogether, it results in a shared critical distance from scholars of Brentano, such as Husserl and Meinong, as well as from Neo-Kantianism.

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Hans-Jürgen P. Walter

Summary

The author exemplifies the congruency of essential foundations between the critical realism of the Berlin School of Gestalt Psychology (Gestalt theory) and Nicolai Hartmann’s Critical Ontology. For instance, this congruency manifests in the importance given to critical-realistic epistemology – purified from idealistic prejudices, not least prejudices such as production-theoretical ones – connected with an unconditional phenomenology. Altogether, it results in a shared critical distance from scholars of Brentano, such as Husserl and Meinong, as well as from Neo-Kantianism.

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Aurelian Botica

Abstract

One of the most important paradigm shifts in the history of Greek philosophy was the ‘rediscovery’ of transcendence in the movement of Intermediate Platonism. Less than a century before the birth of Hellenism (late 4th century BC), Plato had advocated an intentional preoccupation with the life of the mind / soul, encouraging the individual to avoid being entrapped in the material limitations of life and instead discover its transcendental dimension. The conquest of Athens by the Macedonians, followed by the invasion of the Orient by Alexander the Great, set in motion sociological and cultural changes that challenged the relevance of Platonic philosophy. The transcendental vision of Platonism left the individual still struggling to find happiness in the world created by Alexander the Great. This was the context in which the schools the of Cynicism, Stoicism, Epicureanism and Skepticism challenged Platonism with their call to happiness in this world and by means of the Hellenistic dominance and the rise of Roman supremacy stirred a renewed spiritual and philosophical effort to rediscover the world beyond; that is, the transcendental world of Plato. This was Middle Platonism and the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria was one of its most prolific writers. In this paper, we will examine the concept of the soul in the writings of Philo, with an emphasis on the role that the soul plays in the act of approaching God through the means of the external / material cult (Temple, sacrifices, priests, etc.). Philo offers a complex vision of the soul, one that remains critically relevant to understanding the Greek, Jewish, and Christian thought that emerged after Philo.

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Christian Tămaş

The shift of interest from community to individuality and freedom brought by modernity challenged the central place once occupied by religion, pushing it to the outskirts of human life. All these led to an increased indifference towards any transcendental guarantor that could act in a neutral reason-governed space. In the case of Islam, such a situation is impossible to tolerate, because it would mean God’s desecration by reducing the Qur’an to the statute of a simple book like many others that offer an opinion on a Supreme Being who does not decide the destiny of humanity any more, but becomes a simple matter of opinion. While Western Christianity adjusted to modernity reaching even to justify the developments which led to a dissolution of sacred, stating that they were consistent with its essence, Islam accepted modernity only to the extent of this one’s capacity to verify the realities stated by the Qur’an.

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Werner Moskopp

pragmatically naturalized transcendental philosophy of scientific inquiry and pragmatic scientific realism. In: Studia Philosophica Estonica , 5(2), pp. 79–94. VELLEMAN, J. D. (2013): Foundations for moral relativism . Cambridge: Open Book Publishers. VENDLER, Z. (1984): The matter of mind . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

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Vlad Petre Glăveanu

. (forthcoming). Creativity as a sociocultural act. Journal of Creative Behavior . Gralewski, J. (2015). The Psychology of Creativity: A Discussion Between Creative Potential and Its Realization. Creativity. Theories – Research – Applications , 2 , 1, 49-55; DOI: 10.1515/ctra-2015-0007. Graumann, C. F. (1986). The individualization of the social and the desocialization of the individual: Floyd H. Allport’s contribution to social psychology. In C. F. Graumann & S. Moscovici (Eds.), Changing conceptions of crowd mind and behavior (pp. 97-116). New York, NY

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Torsti Sirén

References Adler, Emanuel (1997). “Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics”, European Journal of International Relations, vol. 3/3, pp. 319-363. Adler, Emanuel and Barnett, Michael (2000) “Taking Identity and Our Critics Seriously”, Cooperation and Conflict, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 321-329. Barth, Fredrik (1969) Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. Norway: Little, Brown and Company. Bhaskar, Roy (2005). Critical Realism and the Transcendental Necessity and Emancipatory Potential of

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Robert F. Melendy

. Under §107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Nonprofit, educational (i.e., teaching, scholarship, and research) or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use. I Overview and Scope There is abundant and well-grounded research quantifying the electrical behavior of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. This has come to include

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Nicholas P. Zinos

from, or imposed upon any against their Wills, as Taxes, Excises, Imposts, Tunnage and Poundage now are by the Soldiers, without Act of Parliament against our Laws.” See P RYNNE , supra note 3. Prynne then goes on to enumerate four fundamental laws as the cornerstones of the English legal system: 1) The Privileges and Freedom of their Parliaments and their Members; 2) The safety and liberty of their Persons; 3) The property of their Estates; and 4) The Free course of Common Law, Right, and Justice. This list is consistent with William Blackstone

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Arndt Brendecke

. Behaviour and Emotionality of the Corregidores Corregidores were representatives of royal authority, sent by the king to the cities. They acted as judges and also had other controlling and administrative functions. Fortea Pérez: »Los corregidores«; Marvin Lunenfeld: Keepers of the City. The Corregidores of Isabella I of Castile, 1474–1504, Cambridge 1987. Corregidores were always non-local and stayed only for a limited number of years in the city in which they exercised the corregimiento. This was intended to ensure that their loyalty to the king and their