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Lyubomir A. Dourmishev, Maria H. Hristova, Zornitsa G. Kamenarska, Alexey S. Savov, Anton I. Vinkov, Radka Kaneva and Vanjo Mitev

REFERENCES 1. De la Cruz-Mosso U, Bucala R, Palafox-Sánchez CA, et al. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: association of -794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C polymorphisms with TNF-α in systemic lupus erythematosus. Hum Immunol 2014;75(5):433-9. 2. Hassan AB, Fathi M, Dastmalchi M, et al. Genetically determined imbalance between serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-10 is associated with anti-Jo-1 and anti-Ro52 autoantibodies in patients with poly- and dermatomyositis. J Autoimmun 2006;27(1):62-8. 3. Postal M, Appenzeller S

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Yu Yen Ee and Chew Choy Hoong

:760-85. 4. Gerbod-Giannone M, Li Y, Holleboom A, Han S, Hsu L, Tabas I, et al. TNF-α induces ABCA1 through NF-κB in macrophages and in phagocytes ingesting apoptotic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006; 103:3112-7. 5. Tacer KF, Kuzman D, Seliskar M, Pompon D, Rozman D. TNF-α interferes with lipid homeostasis and activates acute and proatherogenic processes. Physiol Genomics. 2007; 31:216-27. 6. Kwon SH, Nam JI, Kim SH, Kim JH, Yoon JH, Kim KS. Kaempferol and quercetin, essential ingredients in ginkgo biloba extract, inhibit interleukin-1β

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Roman Aleksiewicz, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Marta Likus and Łukasz Gątkiewicz

Introduction Thermal energy, ionising radiation, electrical current or chemical substances can cause burns, the consequences of which depend on their degree and severity. Mild and severe burns cause systemic disturbances called burn disease ( 1 , 2 , 16 ), a phenomenon of which is an increase in proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) concentration, stimulating local and systemic inflammatory response. Its beneficial influence ends when a catabolic reaction in tissues and organs occurs. Generation and persistence of increased concentration of TNF-α

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Ruxandra Simionescu, Alina Popa Cherecheanu, Liliana Voinea and Roxana Sfrenț-Cornățeanu

familial aggregation study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998 Dec;116(12):1640-45. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.116.12.1640 7. Gemenetzi M, Yang Y, Lotery AJ. Current concepts on primary open-angle glaucoma genetics: a contribution to disease pathophysiology and future treatment. Eye. 2012 Mar;26(3):355-69. DOI: 10.1038/eye.2011.309 8. Wiggs JL. Genetic Etiologies of Glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Jan;125(1):30-7. DOI: 10.1001/archopht. 125.1.30 9. Yuan L.; Neufeld AH. TNF-α: a potentially neurodestructive cytokine produced by glia in the

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Lütfiye Tutkun, Servet Birgin İritaş, Serdar Deniz, Özgür Öztan, Sedat Abuşoğlu, Ali Ünlü, Vugar Ali Türksoy and Sultan Pınar Çetintepe

exposures. Neither testicular damage, nor irritation to upper respiratory tract were detected ( 15 ). On the other hand, there are some conflicting studies about DMAc exposure. In a prenatal in vitro study about inflammatory mechanisms of endotoxins, DMAc was found to regulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) ( 16 ). TNF-α and IL-6 are well-known biomarkers of systemic inflammation that has been associated with many diseases in the past. These proinflammatory cytokines have also been

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Maja Cemazar, Vesna Todorovic, Janez Scancar, Ursa Lampreht, Monika Stimac, Urska Kamensek, Simona Kranjc, Andrej Coer and Gregor Sersa

. Nat Rev Cancer 2009; 9: 361-71. 33. Eisenthal A, Schwartz I, Issakov J, Klausner Y, Misonzhnik F, Lifschitz-Mer cer B. Immunohistochemistry evaluation of the effect in vivo of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on blood vessel density in murine fibrosarcoma. Sarcoma 2003; 7: 57-61. 34. Nooijen PT, Manusama ER, Eggermont AM, Schalkwijk L, Stavast J, Marquet RL, et al. Synergistic effects of TNF-alpha and melphalan in an isolated limb perfusion model of rat sarcoma: a histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopical

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Ivan Jančić, Mirjana Šefik-Bukilica, Slađana Živojinović, Nemanja Damjanov, Vesna Spasovski, Nikola Kotur, Kristel Klaassen, Sonja Pavlović, Biljana Bufan and Nevena Arsenović-Ranin

References 1. Seymour HE, Worsley A, Smith JM, Thomas SH. Anti TNF agents for rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 51: 201–8. 2. Danila MI, Hughes LB, Bridges SL. Pharmacogenetics of etanercept in rheumatoid arthritis. Pharmacogenomics 2008; 9: 1011–5. 3. Brennan FM, Maini RN, Feldmann M. TNF-α: a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis? Br J Pharmacol 1992; 31: 293–8. 4. Choy EHS, Panayi GS. Cytokine pathways and joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 907–16. 5. Wilson AG, Symons JA, McDowell TL

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W. Wieteska-Skrzeczyńska, K. Grzelkowska-Kowalczyk, J. Tokarska and K. Grabiec

( 2005 ) NF-kappa B-mediated MyoD decay during muscle wasting requires nitric oxide synthase mRNA stabilization, HuR protein, and nitric oxide release. Mol Cell Biol 25: 6533-6545. Goetsch SC, Hawke TJ, Gallardo TD, Richardson JA, Garry DJ ( 2003 ) Transcriptional profiling and regulation of the extracellular matrix during muscle regeneration. Physiol Genomics 14: 261-271. Grzelkowska-Kowalczyk K, Wieteska-Skrzeczyńska W ( 2010 ) Treatment with TNF-α and IFN-γ alters the activation of Ser/Thr protein kinases and the

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Elżbieta Pels

O, Pinarli G. Long-term effects of chemotherapy on caries formation, dental development, and salivary factors in childhood cancer survivors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104(6):781-9. 20. Uderzo C, Fraschini D, Balduzzi A, et al. Long-term effects of bone marrow transplantation on dental status in children with leukaemia. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1997;20(10):865-9. 21. Jablonska E, Piotrowski L, Grabowska Z. Serum Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-β, sTNF-RI and CRP in Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 1997;3(2):126-9. 22

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Dušan Micić, Nebojša Lalić, Vladimir Djukić, Sanja Stanković, Goran Trajković, Branislav Oluić and Snežana Polovina

metabolic surgery. Arq Bras Cir Dig 2015; 28(4): 266-9. 12. Patel HJ, Patel BM. TNF-a and cancer cachexia: Mole - cular insights and clinical implications. Life Sci 2017; 170: 56-63. 13. Kim J, Bachmann RA, Chen J. Chapter 21 Interleukin 6 and Insulin Resistance. In: Litwack G, editor. Vitamins and hormones. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009: 613-33. 14. Ljungqvist O, Nygren J, Soop M, Thorell A. Metabolic perioperative management: novel concepts. Curr Opin Crit Care 2005; 11(4): 295-9. 15. Baban B, Thorell A, Nygren