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Sian K. Jones

References [1] C. Bennett, G. Brassard, S. Breidbart, and S. Wiesner.“Quantum cryptography, or unforgeable subway tokens”, in D. Chaum, R. Rivest, and A. Sherman, editors, Advances in Cryptology, 267-275, Springer US, 1983. [2] C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard.“Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing”, IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, p. 175, Bangalore, 1984. [3] C. Chang, Y. Chou, and T. D. Kieu.“An information hiding scheme using Sudoku”, ICICIC

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Tanya Khovanova and Wayne Zhao

References [1] Conway, J.H., Ryba, A. “Kenning KenKen”, an unpublished manuscript. [2] Felgenhauer, B., Jarvis, F. “Mathematics of Sudoku I”, Mathematical Spectrum , 39 , 15–22, 2006. [3] McGuire, G., Tugemann, B., Civario, C. “There is no 16-Clue Sudoku: Solving the Sudoku Minimum Number of Clues Problem via Hitting Set Enumeration”, Experimental Mathematics , 23 , 190–217, 2014. [4] gmpuzzles blog , available at , last accessed June 2018. [5] Riley, P., Taalman, L. Beyond Sudoku , Sterling

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Christian Posthoff and Bernd Steinbach

. Burlington, USA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2009. B. Steinbach and C. Posthoff, "Parallel Solution of Covering Problems Super-Linear Speedup on a Small Set of Cores," in GSTF International Journal on Computing, Global Science and Technology Forum (GSTF) , vol. 1, no. 2, Singapore, 2011, pp. 113-122. I. Lynce and J. Ouaknine, "Sudoku as a SAT Problem," in Proc. 9th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics , 2006. T. Weber, "A SAT-based Sudoku Solver," in LPAR-12, The

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Piotr Kleczkowski, Agnieszka Zak and Aleksandra Król-Nowak


The first extensive investigation on the Lombard effect with Polish speech has been performed. Characteristic parameters of Lombard speech were measured: intensity, fundamental frequency, spectral tilt, duration of words, duration of pauses and duration of vowels. The effect was investigated in a task involving real communication - solving a Sudoku puzzle. The speakers produced speech in quiet and in three different backgrounds: competing speech, speech-shaped noise and speech-modulated noise. The experimental conditions were held as close as possible to those in the study by Cooke and Lu (2010) so that conclusions could be drawn whether differences between the Lombard effect in Polish speech and English speech existed. Most of the findings on the Lombard effect known from the literature have been confirmed with Polish speech. In three parameters, Polish speakers were more sensitive to modulated backgrounds while English speakers were more sensitive to a stationary background. In both languages, the modulated backgrounds induced speakers to extend pauses in the communication tasks.

Open access

Judith Breen

tell their own stories. For example, one student said in class ‘management doesn’t care’. Patrick got the student to question how he had arrived at the conclusion that management does not care. He also uses puzzles and Sudoku in class to help them question their thinking ‘how do you know you have the right answer’. Building and deconstructing learning The environment in which learning takes place is an important element of teaching in a critical way. The creation of this learning environment involves both building and deconstruction processes. Firstly, in the