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R. Seixas, D. Varanda, R. Bexiga, L. Tavares and M. Oliveira

, Zadoks RN ( 2009 ) Invited review: The role of contagious disease in udder health. J Dairy Sci 92: 4717-4729. Cerca N, Martins S, Pier GB, Oliveira R, Azeredo J ( 2005a ) The relationship between inhibition of bacterial adhesion to a solid surface by sub-MICs of antibiotics and subsequent development of a biofilm. Res Microbiol 156: 650-655. Cerca N, Martins S, Sillankorva S, Jefferson KK, Pier GB, Oliveira R, Azeredo J ( 2005b ) Effects of growth in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of dicloxacillin on Staphylococcus epidermidis and

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A. Roguska, A. Belcarz, P. Suchecki, M. Andrzejczuk and M. Lewandowska

Abstract

Problem of post-operative infections of implant materials caused by bacterial adhesion to their surfaces is very serious. Enhancement of antibacterial properties is potentially beneficial for biomaterials value. Therefore, the metallic and metallic oxide nanoparticles attract particular attention as antimicrobial factors. The aim of this work was to create nanotubular (NT) oxide layers on Ti with the addition of ZnO nanoparticles, designed for antibacterial biomedical coatings. Antimicrobial activities of titanium, TiO2 NT and ZnO/TiO2 NT surfaces were evaluated against bacterial strain typical for orthopaedic infections: S. epidermidis. TiO2 NT alone killed the free bacterial cells significantly but promoted their adhesion to the surfaces. The presence of moderate amount of ZnO nanoparticles significantly reduced the S. epidermidis cells adhesion and viability of bacterial cells in contact with modified surfaces. However, higher amount of loaded nanoZnO showed the reduced antimicrobial properties than the medium amount, suggesting the overdose effect.

Open access

A. Roguska, A. Belcarz, P. Suchecki, M. Andrzejczuk and M. Lewandowska

Problem of Post-operative infections of implant materials caused by bacterial adhesion to their surfaces is very serious. Enhancement of antibacterial properties is potentially beneficial for biomaterials value. Therefore, the metallic and metallic oxide nanoparticles attract particular attention as antimicrobial factors. The aim of this work was to create nanotubular (NT) oxide layers on Ti with the addition of ZnO nanoparticles, designed for antibacterial biomedical coatings. Antimicrobial activities of titanium, TiO2 NT and ZnO/TiO2 NT surfaces were evaluated against bacterial strain typical for orthopaedic infections: S. epidermidis. TiO2 NT alone killed the free bacterial cells significantly but promoted their adhesion to the surfaces. The presence of moderate amount of ZnO nanoparticles significantly reduced the S. epidermidis cells adhesion and viability of bacterial cells in contact with modified surfaces. However, higher amount of loaded nanoZnO showed the reduced antimicrobial properties than the medium amount, suggesting the overdose effect.

Open access

B. Kot, M. Piechota, M. Antos-Bielska, E. Zdunek, K.M. Wolska, T. Binek, J. Olszewska, P. Guliński and E.A. Trafny

milk. Vet Microbiol 134: 73-81. Siqueira JF Jr, Lima KC ( 2002 ) Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus xylosus in a secondary root canal infection with persistent symptoms: a case report. Aust Endod J 28: 61-63. Taponen S, Simojoki H, Haveri M, Larsen HD, Pyo¨ra¨la¨ S ( 2006 ) Clinical characteristics and persistence of bovine mastitis caused by different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci identified with API or AFLP. Vet Microbiol 115: 199-207. Thorberg BM, Ku¨hn I, Aarestrup FM, Bra¨ndstro¨m B

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F. Zigo, M. Vasiľ, L. Takáč, M. Zigová and J. Elečko

: Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin. Vet. Microbiol. , 115, 163—172. 19. Vautor, E., Cocckfield, J., Marechal, C., Loir, Y., Le Chevalier, M., Robinson, A. D., et al., 2009: Difference in virulence between Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing gangrenous mastitis versus subclinical mastitis in a dairy sheep flock. V et. Res. , 6, 40—56. 20. Vršková, M., Tančin, V., Kirchnerová, K., Sláma, P., 2015: Evaluation of daily milk production in Tsigaia ewes by somatic cell count. Potravinárstvo

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Ingus Skadiņš, Juta Kroiča, Ilze Salma, Aigars Reinis, Marina Sokolova and Dagnija Rostoka

REFERENCES Antoci, V. Jr., Adams, C. S., Parvizi, J., Davidson, H. M., Composto, R. J., Freeman, T. A., Wickstrom, E., Ducheyne, P., Jungkind, D., Shapiro, I. M.,, Hickok, N. J. (2008). The inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation by vancomycin-modified titanium alloy and implications for the treatment of periprosthetic infection. Biomaterials , 29 , 4684–4690. Aybar, Y., Ozaras, R., Besirli, K., Engin, E., Karabulut, E., Salihoglu, T., Mete, B., Tabak, F., Mert, A., Tahan, G., Yilmaz, M. H., Ozturk, R. (2012). Efficacy of

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Juta Kroiča, Ingus Skadiņš, Ilze Salma, Aigars Reinis, Marina Sokolova, Dagnija Rostoka and Natālija Bērza

activation of hydroxyapatite (HA) with controlled porosity by different antibiotics. Biomol. Eng., 24 (5), 510-514. Christner, M., Franke, G. C., Schommer, N. N., Wendt, U., Wegert, K., Pehle, P., Kroll, G., Schulze, C., Buck, F., Mack, D., Aepfelbacher, M., Rohde, H. (2010). The giantextracellularmatrix-binding protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis mediates biofilm accumulation and attachment to fibronectin. Mol. Microbiol., 75, 187-207. Costerton, J. W., Stewart, P. S., Greenberg, E. P. (1999). Bacterial biofilms: Acommon cause of

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Ewelina Pyzik, Agnieszka Marek, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Renata Urban-Chmiel, Łukasz S. Jarosz and Izabella Jagiełło-Podębska

reproducible model for the induction of avian cellulitis in broiler chickens. Avian Dis 1997, 41, 422–428. 20. Ostyn A., De Buyser M.L., Guillier F., Groult J., Felix B., Salah S., Delmas G., Hennekinne J.A.: First evidence of a food poisoning outbreak due to staphylococcal enterotoxin type E, France, 2009. Euro Surveill 2010, 15, pii: 19528. http://www.eurosurveillance.org . 21. Otto M.: Staphylococcus epidermidis – the “accidental” pathogen. Nat Rev Microbiol 2009, 7, 555–567. 22. Roberts M.C., Sutcliffe J., Courvalin P., Jensen L.B., Rood J., Seppala

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I. Klimiene, M. Virgailis, A. Pavilonis, R. Siugzdiniene, R. Mockeliunas and M. Ruzauskas

): 119-124. Thorberg BM, Danielsson-Tham ML, Emanuelson U, Persson Waller K ( 2009 ) Bovine subclinical mastitis caused by different types of coagulase-negative staphylococci. J Dairy Sci 92: 4962-4970. Thumu SC, Halami PM ( 2012 ) Presence of erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes in lactic acid bacteria from fermented foods of Indian origin. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 102: 541-551. Walther C, Perreten V ( 2007 ) Letter to the editor: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in organic milk production. J Dairy Sci 90: 5351.

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Russu Eliza, Mureşan Adrian Vasile, Cordoş Bogdan Andrei, Cotoi Ovidiu Simion and Copotoiu Constantin

;42:298-302. 19. Benvenisty AI, Tannenbaum G, Ahlborn TN, et al. Control of prosthetic bacterial infection: Evaluation of an easily incorporated, tightly bound silver antibiotic PTFE graft. J Surg Res. 1988;44:1-7. 20. Illingworth B, Tweden K, Schroeder R, Cameron JD. In vivo efficacy of silver coated (Silzone) infection-resistant polyester fabric against a biofilm producing bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Heart valve Dis. 1998;7:524-530. 21. Collin GR. Decreasing catheter colonization through the use of an antiseptic-impregnated catheter. Chest. 1999