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Saeedeh Javar, Ahmad Said Sajap, Rozi Mohamed and Lau Wei Hong

References Anand R., Tiwary B.N. 2009. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi to eggs and larvae of Spodoptera litura , the common cutworm. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 19 (9): 919-929. Bae S.D., Park K.B. 1999. Effects of temperature and food source on pupal development, adult longevity and oviposition of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 38: 23-28. Cardona E.V., Ligat C.S., Subang M.P. 2007. Life history of common cutworm, Spodoptera Litura Fabricius

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Rajiv Rathod and P. Butani

Impact of PH (Hydrogen Ion Concentration) on Efficacy of Endosulfan 0.07% Against Spodoptera Litura

The bio-efficacy of endosulfan 0.07% with different quality of water as spray fluid was studied against different larval instars of Spodoptera. litura in laboratory condition. Among the four different quality of water, rain water and river water as spray fluid proved to be most effective while sea water as spray fluid resulted in low per cent mortality in different instars of S. litura, due to of acidic medium and a high electrical conductivity which adversely affected the physical properties and bio-efficacy of endosulfan.

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Mohamad Ahmad Khedr, Hatem Mohamed AL-Shannaf, Hala Mohamed Mead and Shaker Abd El-Aziz Shaker

to azadirachtin content. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38 (6): 1406–1411. Itoyama K., Kawahira Y., Murata M., Tojo S. 1999. Fluctuations of some characteristics in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared under different diets. Applied Entomology and Zoology 34 (3): 315–321. Jansen B., Groot A. 2004. Occurrence, biological activity and synthesis of drimane sesquiterpenoids. Natural Product Reports 21: 449–477. Kamel S.A. 1965. Relation between leaf hairiness and resistance to cotton leafworm. Cotton

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Salaheddine Souguir, Ikbal Chaieb, Zohra Ben Cheikh and Asma Laarif

., Mathivanan T. 2010. Insecticidal properties of Thymus persicus essential oil and their chemical composition against armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). International J. Rec. Sci. Res. 8: 170-176. Niranjankumar B.V., Regupathy A. 2001. Status of insecticide resistance in tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) in Tamil. Nadu. Pestic. Res. J. 13 (1): 86-89. Pavela R. 2004. Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 75 (7-8): 745-749. Pavela R., Chermenskaya T. 2004

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Sylvia Sjam, Ade Rosmana, Vien Sartika Dewi, Dian Ekawati Sari, Untung Surapati Tresnaputra and Asti Herawati

References Arivoli S., Tennyson S. 2013. Ovicidal activity of plant extract against Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences 2 (10): 140–145. Astuthi M.M.M., Sumiartha K., Susila I.W., Wirya G.N.A.S., Sudiarta I.P. 2012. Efikasi minyak atsiri tanaman cengkeh ( Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), Pala ( Myristica fragrans Houtt), dan Jahe ( Zingiber officinale Rosc.) terhadap mortalitas ulat bulu Gempinis dari family Lymantriidae. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and

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Gamal Elsayed Abouelghar, Hanem Sakr, Hager Ali Ammar, Adel Yousef and Moustafa Nassar

References Abbott W.S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol. 18 (2): 265-267. Abdelkefi-Mesrati L., Boukedi H., Dammak-Karray M., Sellami- Boudawara T., Jaoua S., Tounsi S. 2011. Study of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 histopathological effects and determination of its putative binding proteins in the midgut of Spodoptera littoralis . J. Invertebr. Pathol. 106 (2): 250-254. Aydin M.H., Gurkan M.O. 2006. The efficacy of spinosad on different strains of

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Rashad Khan, Khuram Zia, Waqar Salman and Bakhtiar Salman

References Abid R., Cagnieul P. 2003. Indoxacarb: a new insecticidal ingredient against fruit moths. Colleque international tomate sous abri, protection integree - agriculture biologique. Avignon, France, 19 Sep. 2003: 17-18. Ahmad M., Saleem M. A., Ahmad M. 2005. Time - oriented mortality in leafworm, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by some new chemistry insecticides. Pak. Entomol. 27 (1): 67-70. Ahmad M., Arif M. I., Ahmad Z. 1999. Patterns of resistance to

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Hala M. Mead, Samah N. El-Shafiey and Hend M. Sabry

References Abbott W.S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18 (2): 265–267. Abdel-Hafez M.M., Shaaban M.N., El-Malla M.A, Farag M., Abdel-Kawy A.M. 1988. Effect of insect growth regulators on the activity transaminases enzymes with reference to protein and amino acids in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Minia Journal of Agriculture Research and Development 10 (3): 1357–1372. Adedire C.O., Ajayi O.E. 2003. Potential of sandbox, Hura crepitans L. seed oil

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Sandeep Kumar Gaur and Krishna Kumar

.) Roxb. Against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 45(10): 1127–1137. DOI: 10.1080/03235408.2012.657931 Bowers W.S. 1971. Insect hormones and their derivatives as insecticides. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 44 (1–3): 379–389. Brittain C.A., Vighi M., Bommarco R., Settele J., Potts S.G. 2010. Impacts of a pesticide on pollinator species richness at different spatial scales. Basic and Applied Ecology 11 (2): 106–115. DOI: https

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Roya Khosravi and Jalal Jalali Sendi

, California, 22 pp. Li X.D., Chen W.K., Hu M.Y. 1995. Studies on the effects and mechanisms of azadirachtin and rhodojaponin- on Spodoptera litura (F.). J. South China Agric. Uni. 16 (2): 80-85. Miller T.A., Lampe D.J., Lauzon C.R. 2006. Transgenic and paratransgenic insects in crop protection. p. 87-103. In “Insecticide Design Using Advanced Technologies” (I. Ishaaya, R. Nauen, R. Horowitz, eds.). Germany: Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 267 pp. Mordue A.J., Blackwell, A. 1993. Azadirachtin: an update. J. Insect Physiol. 39