References Ambros M 2008: Stav poznania rozšírenia sysla pasienkového (Spermophilus citellus) na Slovensku v rokoch 1996 až 2008 [Current knowledge on the distribution of the European Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) in Slovakia in 1 996-2008]. Lynx, (Praha) 39: 21 9-233. [In Slovak with English summary] Baláž I, Jancová A & Ambros M 2008: Reštitúcia sysla pasienkového (Spermophilus citellus) na Slovensku [Restitution of the European Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) in Slovakia]. Lynx (Praha) 39(2): 235-240. [In
Denisa Löbbová and Ervín Hapl
Sandra Fraňová and Ivan Baláž
References Ambros, M. (1999). Syseľ pasienkový. Metodicke listy 14. Banska Bystrica: SAŽP. Aschoff, J. (1966). Circadian activity pattern with two peaks. Ecology, 47, 657-662. DOI: 10.2307/1933949. Everst, L.G., Strijkstra, A.M., Hut, R.A., Hoffmann, I.E. & Millesi E. (2001). Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus). In R.A. Hut (Ed.), Natural entrainment of circadian system (pp. 15-27). Haren: University of Groningen. Everst
Jozef Chavko, Štefan Danko, Ján Obuch and Jozef Mihók
In this work we assess the data on the food of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in two separate nesting populations: one in Western Slovakia (21 pairs), the other in Eastern Slovakia (30 pairs). In Western Slovakia between 1978 and 2005 we recorded a total of 562 food items, consisting of 33 species of animal. The species predominantly featuring in the food were the brown hare Lepus europaeus (40.2%), common pheasant Phasianus colchicus (17.3%), feral pigeon Columba livia domestica (11.7%) and the common hamster Cricetus cricetus (11.6%). In Eastern Slovakia between 1971 and 2005 we identified a total of 524 food items, made up of 30 animal species with slightly varying predominance of the same principal kinds of prey: L. europaeus (29.0%), C. cricetus (27.7%), P. colchicus (8.4%) and Columba sp. (8.2%). Imperial Eagles nesting in Slovakia are affected by the consequences of a marked reduction in population density of steppe-type rodents, especially ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) and hamsters (C. cricetus) and have become dependent for their food mainly on the prevalence of other small animals (L. europaeus, P. colchicus) and pigeons (C. livia domestica). Pairs nesting in neighbouring Hungary had similar prey, but a different order of predominance of the species (Haraszthy et al. 1996): C. cricetus (51.0%), L. europaeus (12.0%), P. colchicus (11.6%) and S. citellus (7.4%).
Dimitar Demerdzhiev, Dobromir Dobrev, Stoycho Stoychev, Nikolay Terziev, Svetoslav Spasov, Zlatozar Boev and Stoycho Stoychev
During the period 2008-201 3, 32 different breeding territories were occupied by eastern imperial eagles (EIEs). These territories were mainly distributed in two regions: the Dervent Heights/Yıldız Mts. and the area to the north of the Marmara sea coast. The nearest neighbour distance established was 4.2 km. The mean distance between pairs was 1 0.44±2.95 km. The mean value of breeding success for the period 2008-201 3, including 1 07 cases of incubation, was 1 .01±0.1 0. The mean breeding success of birds in the Marmara region (1 .05±0.78) was higher than that in the Dervent Heights/Yıldız Mts. (0.91±0.84). The present study on the diet of the EIE was based on the remains of 582 prey items of at least 70 taxa. Mammals were the most common group (46.5%), followed by birds (32.4%) and reptiles (20.3%). The white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus) was the most common prey, followed by two tortoises - Hermann's tortoise (Eurotestudo hermanni) and the Greek tortoise (Testudo graeca) - which together accounted for a total of 1 4.4% of the prey caught. The prey species particularly represented in the food spectrum of the studied pairs were: the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), the European souslik (Spermophilus citellus), the chicken (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and the white stork (Ciconia ciconia). These species together accounted for 67.8% of the prey caught. There was a statistically significant difference (Z=2.52, p=0.01 ) in the food preferences of the EIEs in the two studied regions.
Márton Horváth, Béla Solti, Imre Fatér, Tibor Juhász, László Haraszthy, Tamás Szitta, Zsuzsanna Ballók and Szilvia Pásztory-Kovács
The diet composition of breeding Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca) was analysed in Hungary between 2005 and 2017, and compared with two previously published datasets from the periods of 1982–1991 and 1992–2004. Altogether the distribution of 8543 prey items of 126 different species and 29 other taxa were analysed within a 36-years period. We found that the previously abundant Common Hamster (Cricetus cricetus) became marginal (7.42%), while European Sousliks (Spermophilus citellus) practically disappeared (0.03%) from the diet of Imperial Eagles. Small game species, like the Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) composed a remarkable part of the diet (11.22% and 28.11% respectively), which raised some conflicts with hunters regionally and probably also contributed to the high prevalence of persecution incidents against the eagles. In parallel with the loss of traditional prey species, corvids (13.10%), pigeons (8.90%), waterbirds (6.83%), other rodents (6.71%), Roe Deers (Capreolus capreolus) (5.59%), raptors and owls (4.88%) became regularly detected prey species. The temporal changes of the main prey categories were analysed between 1998 and 2017, when the ratio of Hamster and Pheasant showed significant decrease (-27.29% and -6.38%, respectively). The ratio of Brown Hare also showed slight decrease (-3.98%), but the change was not significant. On the other hand, the ratio of corvids, waterbirds and Roe Deers within the diet showed significant increase (+18.20%, +6.25% and +5.39%, respectively). The observed flexibility in the foraging behaviour of Imperial Eagles greatly facilitate conservation efforts, as they seems to be able to utilize the most abundant prey sources, i.e. they were not depending solely from the status of any single specific prey source. However, eagles could only shift and survive in those regions, where their traditional preys decreased, if alternative species were available for them.
References Ambros M 2008: Stav poznania rozšírenia sysľa pasienkového ( Spermophilus citellus ) na Slovensku v rokoch 1996 až 2008 [Current knowledge on the distribution of the European ground squirrel ( Spermophilus citellus ) in Slovakia in 1996-2008]. Lynx (Praha), n. s. 39(2): 219-233. [In Slovak with English abstract] Bagyura J, Szitta T, Haraszthy L, Demeter I, Sándor I, Dudás M, Kállay Gy & Viszló L 2004: Population trend of the saker falcon Falco cherrug in Hungary between 1980 and 2002, 663
Jozef Chavko, Roman Slobodník, Lucia Deutschová, Ján Lipták, Jozef Mihók, Ján Obuch and Vladimír Nemcek
References Ambros M 2008: Stav poznania rozšírenia sysla pasienkového (Spermophilus citellus) na Slovensku v rokoch 1 996 až 2008 [Current knowledge on the distribution of the European ground squirrel (Spermophillus cittelus) in Slovakia in 1 996-2008]. Lynx (Praha) 39: 21 9-233. Antal M 201 0: Policy measures to address bird interactions with power lines - a comparative case study of four countries. Ostrich 81 : 21 7-223. DOI: 1 0.2989/00306525.201 0.51 7921 Bagyura G, Haraszthy L & Szitta T 1 994: Feeding