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Mahsa Jahadi, Hossein Afzalimehr and Paweł M. Rowinski

-scale representation of vegetation within hydraulic models. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms., 42, 699–710. DOI: 10.1002/esp.4015. Michalke, A., 1965. spatially growing disturbances in an inviscid shear layer. J. Fluid. Mech., 23, 521–544. Nepf, H., Vivoni, E., 2000. Flow structure in depth-limited, vegetated flow. J. Geophys. Res., 105(C12), 28547–28557. DOI: 10.1029/2000JC900145. Nepf, H., 2012. Hydodynamic of vegetated channels. J. Hydraul. Res., 50, 3, 262–279. Nepf, H.M., Koch, E.W., 1999. Vertical secondary flows in submersed plant-like arrays. Limnol

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Kathy Pain

scenarios for emergent China-Europe relations are put forward, setting the scene for the project the book as a whole comprises—to define an agenda for the European space in a dramatically changing world order. The book is organised in two sections consisting of eight and nine chapters each respectively. The first section focuses on the question whether China constitutes a challenge for policy and spatial planning in Europe whilst the second section consists of a series of individual scenarios for how Europe might evolve during the first half of the millennium in the

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Rogério Parentoni Martins

the optimal phenotype. Eur. J. Ecol., 3, 107–115. Masel, J. & Trotter, M. (2010) Robustness and evolvability. Trends Genet., 26, 406–414. Masel, J. (2013) Q&A: evolutionary capacitance. BMC Biol., 11, 1–4. Miner, B.G., Sultan, S.E., Morgan, S.G., Padilla, D.K. & Relyea, R.A. (2005) Ecological consequences of phenotypic plasticity. Trends Ecol. Evol., 20, 685-692. Mithen, S. (1996) The early prehistory of human social behavior: issues of archeological inference and cognitive evolution. Proc. Br. Acad., 88, 145–147. Murren, C.J., Auld, J

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Līga Baltiņa

References Acemoglu, D. (2010), ‘Institutions, Factor Prices and Taxation: Virtues of Strong States?’ American Economic Review, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 115–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.100.2.115 Adams, N.; Alden, J. & Harris, N. (2012), Regional Development and Spatial Planning in an Enlarged European Union, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. Aghion, P. & Howitt, P. (2009), The Economics of Growth, Cambridge: The MIT Press. Alexiadis, S. (2013), Convergence Clubs and Spatial Externalities

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Alain Thierstein, Stefan Lüthi and Michael Hoyler

urban areas in a given territory. Polycentricity then is associated with a relatively evenly sized distribution of urban centres in a given area (e.g. Hall/Pain 2006 ) and sometimes also with an equal spacing of these centres ( ESPON 2004 ). Or as Halbert (2008: 1149) puts it: “a region is … morphologically polycentric when no city is so big as to dominate others and … cities are as evenly spread over the territory as possible”. On the other hand, there is relational polycentricity, which is based on the networks of flows between urban areas at different spatial

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Carola Fricke

-regional cooperation ( EU Council 2007a ; EU Council 2007b ) and urban-regional partnerships ( European Parliament 2008 : 13) are also found in the European policy discourse. However, these policy declarations contain neither substantive definitions of, nor legal consequences for, metropolitan regions. Varying analytical understandings of metropolitan regions have thus evolved and a common statistical definition is absent, due to differences in indicators and thresholds. ESPON (European Spatial Planning Observation Network) proposed a city-regional terminology based on the

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Muhammad Shafique

urban hydrology and its consequences for receiving waters: A state of the art. Adv. Water Resour; 51 , 261–279. [4] National Research Council. 2009. Urban storm water management in the United States , The National Academies, Washington, D.C. [5] Kaushal, S.S., Belt, K.T. (2012): The urban watershed continuum: Evolving spatial and temporal dimensions. Urban Ecosyst; 15 , 409–435. [6] Nelson, E.J., Booth, D.B. (2002): Sediment sources in an urbanizing, mixed land-use watershed. J. Hydrol; 264 , 51–68. [7] Carey, R.O., Hochmuth, G.J., Martinez

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Leonid Vasilyev and Florin Adrian Radu

. [5] N. Suciu, S. Attinger, F. A. Radu, C. Vamos, J. Vanderborght, H. Vereecken and P. Knabner, Solute transport in aquifers with evolving scale heterogeneity, An. St. Univ. Ovidius Constanta, 23(3): 167-186, 2015. [6] N. Suciu, F.A. Radu, S. Attinger, L. Schueler and P. Knabner, A Fokker- Planck approach for probability distributions of species concentrations transported in heterogeneous media, J. Comput. and Appl. Math., 289 (1): 114-133, 2015. [7] J.P. Gwo, P.M. Jardine, G.V. Wilson, G.T. Yeh: Using a multiregion model to study the

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Jean Peyrony and Olivier Denert

various levels: local, alongside borders (the Franco-Belgian border, for example), and national, European. Let us examine some of the difficulties challenging cross-border spatial information and planning. one of these is the lack of information and evidence at a local, cross-border level. there are few monographs on cross-border statistical monitoring, and those that do exist are of uneven quality and not clearly linked to any political project. the poor understanding of cross-border territories (differentials across borders, as well as links and flows) hinders the

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Michael Bentlage, Anne Wiese, Arno Brandt, Alain Thierstein and Frank Witlox

integration of specialized services that facilitate the flow of information and goods. The locational behavior and the importance of these services for the maritime economy have been explored by Jacobs/Koster/Hall (2011) and Jacobs/Ducruet/de Langen (2010). This development process concurs with the restructuring of port activities and the rise of port city-regions ( Notteboom/Rodrigue 2005 ) as relevant units, marking a process of up-scaling and phenomenological alignment with emerging Mega-City Regions ( Hall 2007b : 5 ff.). The spatial configurations that drive and