titanium aluminum vanadium copings. Dental Materials , 19 (7), 686-691. Bindl, A., Mormann, W.H. (2003). Clinical and SEM evaluation of all-ceramic chair-side CAD/CAM generated pertial crowns. European Journal of Oral Sciences , 111 (2), 163-169. Jevremovic, D.P., Ajdukovic, Z.R., Stankovic, S.D., Radosavljevic, R.D. (2012). Profilometric and SEM analyses of composite surfaces after excess cement removal. Hemijska Industrija , 66 (1), 59-66. Reich, S., Wichmann, M., Nkenke, E., Proeschel P
B. Trifkovic, I. Budak, A. Todorovic, J. Hodolic, T. Puskar, D. Jevremovic and D. Vukelic
Kağan Gökçe, Yasemin Benderli and Mağrur Kazak
(4):307-312. 22. Montes MA, deGoes MF, Sinhoreti MA. The in vitro morphological effects of some current pre-treatments on dentin surface: a SEM evaluation. Oper Dent, 2005; 30(2):201-212. 23. Hayashi M, Takahashi Y, Hirai M, Iwami Y, Imazato S, Ebisu S. Effect of endodontic irrigation on bonding of resin cement to radicular dentin. Eur J Oral Sci, 2005; 113(1):70-76. 24. Demiryürek EO, Külünk S, Saraç D, Yüksel G, Bulucu B. Effect of different surface treatments on the push-out bond strength of fiber post to root canal dentin. Oral Surg Oral Med
L. Samchyshyna and B. Santer
. Toda H., Hirose E. SEM and TEM observation on egg membranes of the two types of Calanus sinicus eggs // Bulletin of Plankton Society of Japan, Special Volume. — 1991. — P. 613-617. Watras C. J. Subitaneous and resting eggs of copepods: Relative rates of clutch production by Diaptomus leptopus// Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. — 1980. — 37. — P. 1579-1581. Wolf E. Die Fortpflanzungsverh ltnisse unserer einheimischen Copepoden // Zoologische Jahrbucher Abteil fur Systematic, Geographic
H. Paul, J. Morgiel, T. Baudin, F. Brisset, M. Prażmowski and M. Miszczyk
The layers near the interface of explosively welded plates were investigated by means of microscopic observations with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy equipped with electron backscattered diffraction facility (SEM/EBSD). The metal compositions based on carbon or stainless steels (base plate) and Ti, Zr and Ta (flyer plate) were analyzed. The study was focused on the possible interdiffusion across the interface and the changes in the dislocation structure of bonded plates in the layers near-the-interface.
It was found that the extremely rapid temperature increase followed by high cooling rates in the areas near the interface favour the formation of metastable phases. The crystalline or glassy nature of the phases formed inside melted zones strongly depends on the chemical composition of bonded metals. The amorphous phases dominates the melted zone of the (carbon or stainless steel)/Zr whereas the mixture of amorphous phases and nano- grains were identified in (carbon steel)/Ti and (stainless steel)/Ta clads. The elongated shape of the (sub)grains and the randomly distributed dislocations inside them as well as the shear bands and twins observed in the layers near-the-interface of all investigated clads, clearly indicated that during explosive welding, the deformation processes were prevailing over the softening ones.
K. Rokosz, T. Hryniewicz, K. Pietrzak and W. Malorny
. Rokicki R., Hryniewicz T., Enhanced oxidation-dissolution theory of electropolishing, Transactions of The Institute of Metal Finishing, 90(4) (2012), 188-196. 5. Hryniewicz T., Rokosz K., ZschommlerSandim HR., SEM/EDX and XPS studies of niobium after electropolishing, Applied Surface Science, 263 (2012), 357-361. 6. Hryniewicz T., Konarski P., Rokicki R., and Valiček J., SIMS analysis of hydrogen content in near surface layers of AISI 316L SS after electrolytic polishing under different conditions, Surface and Coatings Technology, 205
A. Kruk, G. Cempura, S. Lech and A. Czyrska -Filemonowicz
Allvac 718Plus (718Plus) is a high strength, corrosion resistant nickel- based superalloy used for application in power generation, aeronautics and aerospace industry. The 718Plus microstructure consists of a γ matrix with γ’-Ni3(Al,Ti) and some δ- Ni3Nb phases as well as lamellar particles (η-Ni3Ti, η*-Ni6AlNb or Ni6(Al,Ti)Nb) precipitated at the grain boundaries.
The primary strengthening mechanism for this alloy is a precipitation hardening, therefore size and distribution of precipitates are critical for the performance of the alloy. The aim of this study was to characterize precipitates in the 718Plus superalloy using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (STEM-EDX) and Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB-SEM). The STEM-EDX and FIB-SEM tomography techniques were used for 3D imaging and metrology of the precipitates. Transmission electron microscopy and EDX spectroscopy were used to reveal details of the 718Plus microstructure and allow determine chemical composition of the phases. The study showed that electron tomography techniques permit to obtain complementary information about microstructural features (precipitates size, shape and their 3D distribution) in the reconstructed volume with comparison to conventional particle analysis methods, e.g. quantitative TEM and SEM metallography
Maciej Rybicki, Łukasz Karwowski and Kamila Banasik
In “Stanisław” quarry, that is located on Garby Izerskie, ore minerals-bearing calcsilicate skarns were found in 2009. The samples were studied using microscopical method of reflected light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on SEM study, the predominant ore minerals in investigated samples are chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, bismuth telluride and native bismuth. Moreover, acanthite, native gold and native silver were also identified. Our studies are the first report of above mentioned minerals from the Garby Izerskie area.
B. Kavitha and M. Dhanam
Near stoichiometric and stoichiometric CuIn(1−x)Al(x)Se2 (CIAS) thin films have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) spectra have been employed to confirm the structure and composition of the prepared films. SEM analysis of near-stoichiometric and stoichiometric CIAS thin films enabled us to estimate the grain size, to identify the growth mechanism and also to visualize the surface morphology. Transmittance spectra have been employed to determine the type of transition and other optical parameters such as absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant, refractive index, Sellmeier parameters and bandgap which are reported in this paper in detail.
K. Konopka, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska and J. Dutkiewicz
Methods of enhancing of mechanical properties of ceramic-metal composites, particularly fracture toughness by introducing dispersed metal particles such as W, Mo, Ni, Al, etc to a ceramic matrix are well known. However, the dependence of the microstructures, especially interfaces, on the properties of composites is not well understood yet. Moreover, the ceramic-metal interfaces play a crucial role in tailoring the composite properties.
In this paper we examine the alumina matrix composite with NiAl2O4 spinel phase and present the SEM and TEM studies of spinel distribution, size and crystallographic orientation. The composites were prepared by sintering Al2O3 and Ni powders below the melting point of Ni in argon. During the process of sintering the spinel phase appeared. It was not homogeneously distributed in the alumina matrix. The spinel phase areas were linked together and constituted an almost continuous form. We observed that the distribution and size of spinel influenced the fracture toughness of the composite.
Małgorzata Szynkowska, Ewa Leśniewska, Aleksandra Pawlaczyk, Jacek Rogowski and Tadeusz Paryjczak
Application of the TOF-SIMS and SEM-EDS methods to assess the influence of dusting from a phosphate waste deposal place based on hair analysis
In this work, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were used to study the particles present on the hair surface of the inhabitants of Wislinka (people environmentally exposed due to the closeness of a dump) in order to obtain the information about the possible influence of dusting from a phosphate waste deposal place. Additionally, the morphology and the composition of fresh phosphogypsum were analyzed. Waste phosphogypsum is formed in the process of a wet phosphoric acid production and there is still a problem with its storage. A thorough understanding of the composition and chemistry of phosphogypsum seems to be necessary to evaluate its environmental impact comprehensively. The results obtained from these two techniques turned out to be complementary and revealed the information expected.