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UDO UNDEUTSCH* The actual use of investigative physiopsychological examinations in Germany EUROPEAN POLYGRAPH Volume 13 • 2019 • Number 1 (47) The Polygraph Examiner Resource Guide (Validated Polygraph Techniques and Scoring Systems) has been established by the team of practical polygraph examiners of Ukraine: Vitalii Sh povalov, Dmytro Zubovskyi, Diana Alieksieieva-Protsiuk, Olesia Goncharova Довідник поліграфолога (валідні формати тестів та системи бального оцінювання) [уклад.: В. Шаповалов, Д. Зубовський, Д. Алєксєєва-Процюк, О. Гончарова

Ahmad Medical Director, Innovat ve Medicines Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton NJ, USA J. Michael Williams Department of Psychology, Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA, USA Scott H. Faro Professor of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore MD, USA The Eff ectiveness of fMRI Data when Combined with Polygraph Data Эффективность сочетания данных фМРТ с данными полиграфа Key words: Integrated Zone Comparison Technique, Polygraph, ASIT PolySuite Scoring

Abstract

The polygraph is an instrument that detects, monitors, and records physiological responses that are allegedly of psychological origin and attributed to deception. Hence the human mind and its complex psychology are the core of the detected physical responses. However, the polygraph industry has almost entirely overlooked psychological issues in its training and publishing. The industry focuses its attention and interest on various technical aspects of the test such as e.g. scoring, rather than concentrating on what is most important, i.e. the examinee’s psychology, as it is responsible for almost the entire test result. The paper extensively explains the importance of examinee psychology and its influence on test outcome, points to the shortfalls in training and publication activity of the industry, and discusses the result and impact of the industry’s approach.

References Gordon N., Cochetti P. The Horizontal Scoring System. Polygraph 1987, 16, 2. Gordon N., Fleisher W. Academy for Scientific Investigative Training’s Horizontal Scoring System and Examiner’s Algorithm for Chart Interpretation. Polygraph 1999, 28, 1. Gordon N., Fleisher W. Effectiveness of the Integrated Zone Comparison Technique (IZCT) with Various Scoring Systems in a Mock Crime Experiment by Students. European Polygraph 2012, 6, 1 (19). Gordon N., Fleisher W., et al. A Field Study of the Integrated Zone Comparison Technique. Polygraph 2000, 29, 3

References [1] Gordon N., Cochetti P., The Horizontal Scoring System, Polygraph, 1987, 16, 2, pp. 118–125. [2] ASIT PolySuite is a manually driven computerised algorithm for analysing polygraph data. Bibliography APA Ad-hoc Committee, Meta-Analytic Survey of Criterion Accuracy of Validated Polygraph Techniques, Polygraph 2011, 44 (4), pp. 194–305. Gordon N., Cochetti P., The Horizontal Scoring System, Polygraph, 1987, 16, 2, pp. 118–125. Matte J.A., Forensic Psychophysiology, Using the Polygraph, J.A.M. Publications, 1996, Williamsville, NY, pp. 195–199.

References [1] Matte J.A., 1996, Forensic Psychophysiology Using The Polygraph, New York, 373–390. [2] Swinford J., 1999, Manually Scoring Polygraph Charts Utilizing the Seven-Positioning Numerical Analysis Scale at the Department of Defense Polygraph Institute, “ Polygraph”, 28, 1, 10–27. [3] Ansley N., Krapohl D. 2000, The Frequency of Appearance of Evaluative Criteria in Field Polygraph Charts, “Polygraph”, 29, 2, 169–176. [5] Matte J.A, Reuss R. 1992, A Study of the Relative Effectiveness of Physiological Data in Field Polygraph Examinations, “Published in

References Widacki M. 2014, Aktualny standard badań poligraficznych a praktyka polska, [in:] J. Widacki (ed.), Badania poligraficzne w Polsce, Oficyna Wydawnicza AFM, Krakow, p. 193. Konieczny J. 2010, Polygraph examination as scientific evidence, European Polygraph 3 (13), pp. 129-135. Leśniak M., Zubańska M., A comparison of polygraph examination accuracy rates obtained using the seven-position numerical analysis scale and the Objective Scoring System (a study on the Polish population), European Polygraph 2 (12), pp. 84-85.

Abstract

In the 1920’s, earlier work on polygraph instrumentation and procedure in Europe and the United States came together in Chicago where John Reid and Fred Inbau at the Scientific Crime Laboratory applied extensive field observations in real life criminal cases to create the Comparison Question and semi-objective scoring technique, the factors that allowed polygraph to achieve scientific status.

While Chicago was not the first place the instrumental detection of deception was attempted, it was the place where the contemporary, comparison question technique was first developed and polygraph became a science. This fortuitous development was the result of the unlikely assemblage of a remarkable group of polygraph pioneers and a ready supply of criminal suspects.

It is impossible to pinpoint when people first began noticing the relationship between lying and observable changes in the body. The early Greeks founded the science of physiognomy in which they correlated facial expressions and physical gestures to impute various personality characteristics. The ancient Asians noted the connection between lying and saliva concluding that liars have a difficult time chewing and swallowing rice when being deceptive. Clearly, behavioral detection of deception pre-dates instrumental detection of deception which, it is equally clear, is European in origin. By 1858 Etienne-Jules Marey, the grandfather of cinematography recently feted in Martin Scorsese’s film Hugo, and Claude Bernard, a French physiologist, described how emotions trigger involuntary physiological changes and created a “cardiograph” that recorded blood pressure and pulse changes to stimuli such as nausea and stress (Bunn, 2012). Cesare Lombroso, often credited as the founder of criminology, published the first of five editions of L’uomo delinquente in 1876 in which he postulated that criminals were degenerates or throwbacks to earlier forms of human development. Lombroso later modified his theory of “born criminals” by creating three heretical classes of criminals: habitual, insane and emotional or passionate (Lombroso, 1876).

By 1898, Hans Gross, the Austrian jurist credited with starting the field of criminalistics, rejected the notion of “born criminals” and postulated that each crime was a scientific problem that should be resolved by the best of scientific and technical investigative aides (Gross, 2014). In 1906, Carl Jung used a galvanometer and glove blood pressure apparatus with a word association test and concluded that the responses of suspected criminals and mental perverts were the same ( Jung, 1907).

In order to appreciate the important polygraph contributions that occurred in Chicago, one needs to first consider what was happening at Harvard University and in Berkeley, California at the beginning of the 2oth Century.

References Ansley N., Weir R. (1976): a numerical scoring system for Relevant-Irrelevant polygraph tests. Paper presented at the 1976 Annual Seminar of the American Polygraph Association. Barland G.H. (1988): Th e polygraph test in the USA and elsewhere. In A. Gale (Ed.) Th e polygraph test: Lies, truth and science. Sage Publications, London. Blackwell N.J. (1999): Polyscore 3.3 and psychophysiological detection of deception examiner rates of accuracy when scoring examinations from actual criminal investigations. Polygraph 28 (2), 149-175. Carter G., Polger P

-Track Zone Comparison Technique. Polygraph, Vol. 36, No. 2. 84–90. Matte, J. A. (July 2010). A field study of the Backster Zone Comparison Technique’s Either-Or Rule and scoring system versus two other scoring systems when relevant question elicits strong response. European Polygraph, Vol. 4, No. 2(12). Matte, J. A. (2011). Psychological aspects of the Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Technique and attendant benefits of its Inside-Track. European Polygraph , Vol. 5, No. 2(16). Matte, J. A. (2002–2012). Supplement 2002–2012 – Forensic Psychophysiology Using The Polygraph