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Evelina Gherghina, Daniela Balan, Gabriela Luta and Florentina Israel-Roming

-2206. Catunescu, C.M., Rotar, I., Vidican, R., Rotar, A.M., 2017. Effect of cold storage on antioxidants from minimally processed herbs. Scientific Bull. USAMVB. Series F. Biotechnologies 21, 121-126. Cui, F., Callen, P., Dani, M., 2014. Rose hip (Rosa canina L.): A functional food perspective. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 4(11), 493-509. Demir, F., Ozcan, M., 2001. Chemical and technological properties of rose (Rosa canina L.) fruits grown wild in Turkey. Journal of Food Engineering 47, 333-336. Dubtsova, G

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Monika Michalak and Anna Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz

healthy elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70:536-543. 32. Mrozińska M. Rola kwasu gamma-linolenowego w utrzymaniu prawidłowej struktury i funkcji skóry. Czas Aptek 2008; 1(169):50-52. 33. Grajzer M, Prescha A, Korzonek K, Wojakowska A, Dziadas M, Kulma A et al. Characteristics of rose hip ( Rosa canina L.) cold-pressed oil and its oxidative stability studied by the differential scanning calorimetry method. Food Chem 2015; 188:459-466. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.034 34. Łoźna K, Kita A, Styczyńska M, Biernat J. Skład kwasów

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Anna Sołtys-Lelek and Wojciech Gruszka

girlandowa. In: K. B rowicz (ed.). Atlas rozmieszczenia drzew i krzewów w Polsce 32: 9-10. Warszawa-Poznań. Z ieliński J. 1981c. Rosa dumalis Bechst. em. Bouleng. – róża sina In: K. B rowicz (ed.). Atlas rozmieszczenia drzew i krzewów w Polsce 32: 15-16. Warszawa-Poznań. Z ieliński J. 1981d. Rosa villosa L. – róża jabłkowata. In: K. B rowicz (ed.). Atlas rozmieszczenia drzew i krzewów w Polsce 32: 21-23. Warszawa-Poznań. Z ieliński J. 1981e. Rosa canina L. – róża dzika. W: In: K. B rowicz (ed.). Atlas rozmieszczenia drzew i krzewów w Polsce

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Zohra Ben Cheikh-Affene, Faouzi Haouala and Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri

References BAILEY, L. H., 1963: The standard encyclopaedia of horticulture. Macmillan Co., New York. BAKER, J. G., 1871: Monograph of British rose. The Journal of the Linnean Society. Vol XI, 197-243. BARROS, L., CARVALHO, A. M., FERREIRA, I., 2010: Exotic fruits as a source of important phytochemicals: Improving the traditional use of Rosa canina fruits in Portugal. Food Research International 44, 2233-2236 BOSKABADY, M. H., KIANI, S., RAKHSHANDAH, H., 2006: Relaxant effects of Rosa damascene on

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Bożena Pawłowska

References Barna K.S., Wakhlu A.K., 1995. Effects of thidiazuron on micropropagation of rose. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. 31: 44-46. Bhardwaj R., Singh S.K., Pal S., Kumar S., 2006. An improved protocol for micro-propagation of miniature rose ( Rosa chinensis Jacq. var. minima) cultivars. J. Ornam. Hort. 9(4): 238-242. Bhoomsiri Ch., Masomboon N., 2003. Multiple Shoot Induction and Plant Regeneration of Rosa damascena Mill. Silpakorn University International Journal 3(12): 230

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Artur Adamczak, Waldemar Buchwald, Jerzy Zieliński and Sebastian Mielcarek

We determined the level of flavonoids, citric acid and ascorbic acid in hips of rose species from the Caninae section occurring in Poland. We performed phytochemical analyses of 75 samples representing 11 species: Rosa agrestis Savi, R. canina L., R. dumalis Bechst., R. glauca Pourret, R. inodora Fries, R. jundzillii Besser, R. rubiginosa L., R. sherardii Davies, R. tomentosa Sm., R. villosa L. and R. zalana Wiesb. Flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically, and organic acid concentrations by HPLC. The content of the studied compounds varied greatly. Interspecific differences in the amount of flavonoids and ascorbic acid were highly significant. The most common species, Rosa canina, showed low average content of vitamin C (0.51 g/100 g of dry matter) and flavonoids (41 mg/100 g DM) and high content of citric acid (3.48 g/100 g DM). Ascorbic acid was highest in R. villosa hips (avg. 2.25 g/100 g DM), flavonoids were highest in R. rubiginosa (72 mg/100 g DM), and citric acid was highest in R. tomentosa (4.34 g/100 g DM). Flavonoid level correlated negatively with the amount of citric acid (r=-0.47, p<0.001). Cluster analysis of rose species based on the content of the investigated compounds confirmed the validity of the division of sect. Caninae into three subsections: Rubiginosae, Vestitae and Rubrifoliae. The phytochemical variation of these roses reflects their probable phylogenetic relationships as determined from morphology.

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Alexander Fehér, Daniela Halmová and Lýdia Končeková

Abstract

The paper focuses on a research carried out during two consecutive growing seasons (2011 and 2012) in a willow tree stand (Salix schwerinii × S. viminalis, variety Tordis) and a grass stand of miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter). Both of the species can be used for energy production. The evaluation was carried out in a research centre located in Kolíňany (Nitra district area, SW Slovakia). Biodiversity of the ground flora within the two crops stands was jointly assessed through the multivariate statistical method of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The results showed that almost all spontaneous vascular plant species have a weedy character, they have no specific environment requirements, they are stress tolerant, and their propagules are often present in agricultural ecosystems or in vegetation of rural landscape (field margins, strip boundaries, abandoned fields, orchards, etc.). Good examples of synanthropic species observed in the stands are Cirsium arvense, Equisetum arvense, Convolvulus arvensis etc., while several other typical species of usually non-synanthropic, habitats, e.g. Symphytum officinale, Persicaria lapathifolia, Calystegia sepium were also observed. Many juvenile shrub and wood species occurring in E1 and E2 layers also belonged to the semi-natural vegetation, e.g. Sambucus nigra, Rosa canina agg., Crataegus laevigata. The presence of potentially invasive and expansive plant species is evaluated as a negative factor.

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Ewelina Hallmann, Emilia Orpel and Ewa Rembiałkowska

References Awad M. A., de Jager A., van Westing L. M. 2000. Flavonoid and chlorogenic acid levels in apple fruit: characterisation of variation. Sci. Hort. 83: 249-263 Boyer I., Liu R. H. 2004. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutrit. J. 3: 5-8 Demir F., Özkan M. 2001. Chemical and technological properties of rose ( Rosa canina L.) fruits grown wild in Turkey. J. Food Engineer. 47: 333-336. Ercisli S. 2007. Chemical composition of fruits in

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Marcin Woch

Xerothermic vegetation of fallow lands in western Małopolska

In 2005-2011 the occurrence of xerothermic vegetation on fallow lands located on hills near Trzebinia and Jaworzno was studied. The Braun-Blanquet relevés were performed on SE, S and SW slopes. Well-drained brown loamy soils developed on shallow sands on Triassic dolomites, lime-stone and Myślachowice conglomerate dominating at the sites. Investigations were also conducted on amid-field balks and fallow lands where in 2005 moderate agricultural activity was resumed. In general, superficial ploughing has not eliminated plant cover, but only disturbed turf and uncovered soil seed bank of former cultivation weeds.

Fields 10-15 years after they had been abandoned, were dominated by the Dauco-Picridetum hieracioidis xerothermic ruderal association, with considerable share of Malva alcea and Verbascum species (V densiflorum, V. lychnitis, V. phlomoides and V. thapsus) in younger fallows. These communities were characterized by occurrence of xerothermic grasslands and warm thickets taxons from Festuco-Brometea and Trifolio-Geranietea sanguinei classes, i.a.: Achillea pannonica, Allium scorodoprasum, Bromus erectus, Centaurea stoebe, Cerinthe minor, Filipendula vulgaris, Fragaria viridis, Gentianella ciliata, Phleum phleoides, Valeriana angustifolia, Veronica spicata, Viola hirta and Thesium linophyllon.

Additionally, on ploughed fallows in gaps of turf numerous annual and biennial segetal as well as ruderal species were observed. In many places thermophilous segetal association of Papaveretum argemones developed, in which a significant share of Avena fatua, Camelina microcarpa subsp. sylvestris, Consolida regalis, Lithospermum arvense and Papaver rhoeas was noted in addition to Arabidopsis thaliana, Papaver argemone and Veronica triphyllos.

The oldest fallows (20-25 years after abandonment), amid-fields steep slopes and balks were covered by Geranio-Peucedanietum cervariae associations. Their physiognomy was formed by Agrimonia eupatoria, Brachypodium pinnatum and Origanum vulgare, sometimes also by Geranium sanguineum, Peucedanum cervaria and P. oreoselinum. This vegetation was in spatial contact with thermophilous thickets of Berberidion alliance with Cornus sanguinea, Crataegus monogyna, Prunus spinosa, Rhamnus cathartica, and Rosa canina.

On xerothermic post-agricultural areas specific stable communities formed by thermophilous species from meadows, ruderals, grasslands and thickets occurred. A new phenomenon of recent years, related to EU benefits - superficial ploughing of fallows, not followed by regular cultivation - favours segetal vegetation. Weeds communities are regressing in Europe as an effect of modern agriculture. Post-agricultural secondary habitats are important elements that should be taken into account in studies of appearance and protection of xerothermic plants.

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Agnieszka Wojtania and Bożena Matysiak

REFERENCES A damczak A., B uchwald W., Z ieliński J., M ielcarek S., 2012. Flavonoid and organic acid content in rose hips ( Rosa L., sect. Caninae DC. EM. Christ.). Acta Biol. Cracov. Bot. 54, 105-112. A lvarez -F ernandez A., G arate A., L ucena J.J., 1997. Interaction of iron chelates with several soil materials and with a soil standard. J. Plant Nutr. 20, 559-572. A mbros E.V., V asilyeva O.YR., N ovikova T., 2016. Effects of in vitro propagation on ontogeny of Rosa canina L. micropropagated plants as a promising rootstock