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Negar Aghaali, Mohammad Ghadamyari, Vahid Hosseininaveh and Nasir Saberi Riseh

Abstract

Proteases are one of the most important digestive enzymes in the midgut of Hyphantria cunea Drury. Proteases are responsible for protein digestion. In the present study, we evaluated the efficiency of some plant inhibitors on proteases in the gut of the H. cunea. Last instar larvae were collected from mulberry trees. The digestive system of the larvae was used as an enzyme source. The total proteolytic and trypsin activity were assessed by the hemoglobin and BApNA, respectively, as the substrate. The evaluation of the total proteolytic and trypsin activities in various pHs showed the highest relative activity at a pH of 11. Also, the inhibitory effect of inhibitors extracted from Alhagi maurorum Medik., Lathyrus sativus L., Vicia faba L., Prosopis farcta (Banks & Sol.) Eig., and Panicum miliaceum L. on the digestive protease of the fall webworm was measured. Protease inhibitors extracted from A. maurorum, P. farcta and P. miliaceum showed negligible inhibition but L. sativus was able to inhibit 34.72% and 100% of the total activity of proteolytic and trypsin, respectively. Also, the total proteolytic and trypsin activities were inhibited by the inhibitor from V. faba, at 22.27% and 100%, respectively. The zymogram pattern of trypsin with nitro-cellulose membranes showed 2 isoforms in the gut of H. cunea. The inhibitor from L. sativus completely inhibited both isoforms. Gel electrophoresis of proteolitytic activity revealed at least 6 isoforms the inhibitor extracted from L. sativus; completely inhibiting some of them. The inhibitor from L. sativus was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel-filtration. The molecular mass of the inhibitor was determined as 45 kDa. The highest inhibition of trypsin activity by the inhibitor from L. sativus occurred at a pH of 10. The stability of the inhibitor from L. sativus was evaluated at different pHs and temperatures. The results showed that the inhibitor from L. sativus was stable at a pH of 11.0, and showed 45% inhibition on trypsin activity at a pH of 11. Also, this inhibitor revealed stability up to 50°C.

Open access

Joanna Abramów and Arkadiusz Wiktor

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the archaeological excavation of the Early Medieval site at Wildno (site 10) and the initial results of ongoing archaeobotanical analysis of plant macro-remains from the same site. During rescue excavation many archaeological features were found. Among them a few probable huts, smokehouses and tar pits were discovered. Inside them, plant macro-remains were found. Analyses showed remains of cultivated plant and weed species, which provides evidence of farming practice during early medieval times. The cultivated plants were Linum usitatissimum, Panicum miliaceum and Triticum aestivum.

Open access

Ľuboš Harangozo, Mária Timoracká, Július Árvay, Alena Vollmannová and Pavol Trebichalský

Abstract

The aim of this work is to evaluate the extent of risk for the transfer of heavy metals from contaminated soil to selected parts of crops. The goal is to be achieved under the model conditions of vegetation pot experiment. Soil taken from the area of Výčapy-Opatovce and three types of cereals - millet (Panicum miliaceum) cv. UNIQUM, oats (Avena sativa) cv. ATEGO and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) - were used. For each crop, four variants (A - control with basic ferilization, B, C, D) were made and cadmium in the form of a water-soluble salt of Cd(NO3)2 was applied in gradual specific doses with 5- (variant B), 10- (variant C), 15-fold (variant D) as the limit values by Law no. 220/2004 Z.z. to assess the state of soil contamination. Crops were harvested at ‘full ripeness’ and using the AAS method (VARIAN 240FS) the heavy metal content was determined by the wet mineralization of plant samples. The lowest cadmium content in the aboveground biomass was observed in millet in comparison to other plants, while the highest was recorded in amaranth. The highest increase in the cadmium content in the aboveground biomass in this crop (appr. 18-fold) was noticed in variant C. The lowest cadmium content was also observed in millet seeds. The highest content of Cd in the seeds was recorded in oats in all variants.

Open access

Tomasz Goslar, Michał Jankowski, Aleksander Kośko, Maria Lityńska-Zając, Piotr Włodarczak and Danuta Żurkiewicz

lat 1984-2014. Archaeologia Bimaris - Monografie 6, 305-312. Poznań. Goslar T., Klochko V.I., Kośko A., Włodarczak P., Żurkiewicz D. 2015 Chronometry of Late Eneolithic and Early Bronze cultures in the middle Dniester area: investigations of the Yampil barrow complex. Baltic-Pontic Studies 20: 256-291. Gyulai F. 2014 The history of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L. ) in the Carpathian- Basin in the mirror of archaeobotanical remains from the Roman Age until the Late Medieval Age. Columella. Journal of Agricultural and

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Joanna Koszałka and Joanna Ewa Strzelczyk

, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Ohnish i O. 2004. Origin of Cultivated Buckwheat. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, pp. 16-21. Ralski E. 1957. Szczegółowa uprawa roślin. 735 pp. PWRiL, Warszawa. Biodiv. Res. Conserv. 37: 75-81, 2015 Strzelczyk J. 2003. Proso zwyczajne (Panicum miliaceum L.) we wczesnym średniowieczu Wielkopolski Prace Zakładu Biogeografii i Paleoekologii UAM w Poznaniu, 2: 1-36. Bogucki Wyd. Nauk., Poznań. Topolski J. 1964. Polowa produkcja roślinna. In: B

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Mohammed Dadach, Zoheir Mehdadi and Abd Latif Adjouj

perennial grass (Stipa tenacissima L.) under controlled temperatures and water stress, South African Journal of Botany, 94, 210-217. DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2014.07.008. 10. Liu, M., Qiao, Z., Zhanga, S., Wang, Y., Lu, P. (2015). Response of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) genotypes from semiarid regions of China to salt stress, The Crop Journal, 3, 57- 66. DOI: 10.1016/j.cj.2014.08.006. 11. Redondo-Gomez, S., Mateos-Naranjo, E., Wharmby, C., Davy, C.J., Figueroa, M.E. (2007). Bracteoles affect germination and seedling establishment in

Open access

Paweł Bereś and Tomasz Konefał

pp. ITIS, Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 1996. Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. Taxonomic Serial No.: 117738. Available in: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=117738&print_version=PRT&source=to_print Judenko E. 1938. Badania nad omacnicą prosowianką - Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn. w związku z jej żerowaniem na chmielu ( Humulus lupulus L.) i prosie ( Panicum miliaceum L.). Prace Wydziału Chorób i Szkodników Roślin PINGW w Bydgoszczy, Warszawa 17: 19

Open access

S. Hassannejad and A.R. Mobli

-proso millet ( Panicum miliaceum ). Weed Sci., 57:296-303. Steinmaus S., Elmore C.L., Smith R.J., Donaldson D., Weber E.A., Roncoroni J.A., Miller P.R.M., 2008 - Mulched cover crops as an alternative to conventional weed management systems in vineyards. Weed Res., 48: 273-281. Stivers-Young L., 1998 - Growth, nitrogen accumulation, and weed suppression by fall cover crops following early harvest of vegetables. Hort. Science., 33: 60-63. Teasdale J.R., Mohler C.L., 1993 - Light transmittance, soil temperature, and soil moisture under residue of hairy vetch and rye

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Aldona Mueller-Bieniek, Adam Walanus and Emil Zaitz

. Environmental conditions and human interference during the 6th and 13th-15th centuries A.D. at Vilnius Lower Castle, east Lithuania. Veget. Hist. Archaeobot., 17(Suppl. 1): 239-250. STRZELCZYK J.E. 2003. Proso zwyczajne (Panicum miliaceum L.) we wczesnym średniowieczu Wielkopolski. Pr. Zakł. Biogeogr. Paleoekol. UAM, 2: 1-36. VAN DER VEEN M. 2007. Formation processes of desiccated and carbonized plant remains - the identification of routine practice. J. Archaeol. Sci., 34(6): 968-990. WAJS H. 1993. Rachunki królewskie z lat 1393

Open access

Elena Zand, Denisse Bender, Stefano D’Amico, Sandor Tömösközi, Henry Jaeger and Regine Schoenlechner

wheat and proso millet Panicum miliaceum L.) by adding emulsifiers, transglutaminase and xylanase. LWT - Food Science and Technology 51, 361–366. 10.1016/j.lwt.2012.10.020 Schoenlechner R. Szatmari M. Bagdi A. Tömösközi S. 2013 Optimisation of bread quality produced from wheat and proso millet Panicum miliaceum L.) by adding emulsifiers, transglutaminase and xylanase LWT - Food Science and Technology 51 361 366 Schooneveld-Bergmans, M.E.F., Dignum, M.J.W., Grabber, J.H., Beldman, G. and A.G.J. Voragen (1999): Studies on the oxidative