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Beata Borowska-Strugiń, Magdalena Druszczyńska, Wiesław Lorkiewicz, Rafał Szewczyk and Elzbieta Ządzińska

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99(6):3684-89. Brothwell DR. 1981. Digging Up Bones: The Excavation, Treatment, and Study of Human Skeletal Remains. Cornell University Press. Canci A, Minozzi S, Borgognini Tarli SM. 1996. New evidence of tuberculous spon-dylitis from Neolithic Liguria (Italy). Int J Osteoarchaeol 6:497-501. Chan JZ-M, Sergeant MJ, Lee OY-C, Minnikin DE, Besra GS, et al. 2013. Metagenomic analysis of tuberculosis in a mummy. N Engl J Med 369:289-90. Donoghue HD, Spigelman M, Greenblatt CL, Lev-Maor G, Bar-Gal GK, et al. 2004

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Vasile Benea, Dimitri Vandenberghe, Alida Timar, Peter van Den Haute, Constantin Cosma, Mihai Gligor and Cristian Florescu

Macedonian and Danube region at the end of sixth millennium, beginning of fifth millennium BC). Apulum XLII: 12-26 (in Romanian). Frechen M, Schweitzer U and Zander A, 1996. Improvements in sample preparation for the fine grain technique. Ancient TL 14: 15-17. Gligor M, 2006. Consideraţii privitoare la neoliticul târziu/eneoliticul timpuriu din S-V Transilvaniei. Materiale ceramice de la Alba Iulia-Lumea Nouă. (Considerations regarding late Neolithic/ Early Aeneolithic in S-V of Transylvania. Ceramic materials

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Marek Nowak, Magdalena Moskal-Del Hoyo, Aldona Mueller-Bieniek, Maria Lityńska-Zając and Krzysztof Kotynia

charcoal dates being earlier than the remaining ones. Some of them even precede the earliest possible date for the appearance of LBK in the Rhine basin established on the basis of our knowledge of Neolithic prehistory. In other words, these dates are completely unreliable. Obviously enough, such situations lead to the preference (wherever possible) of dates obtained from other materials, which in the Neolithic contexts means primarily from bone. The problem of the ‘old wood’ has been raised many times in archaeological literature ( Schiffer, 1986 ; Nowaczyk, 1990

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Katarina Botić

forest. Vjesnik Arheološkog muzeja u Zagrebu XLII, 23–72 (in Croatian with English summary). Bánffy E. 2004. The 6th Millennium BC boundary in western Transdanubia and its role in the Central European Neolithic transition (The Szentgyörgyvölgy-Pityerdomb Settlement). Varia Archaeologica Hungarica XV. Budapest. Bánffy E., Sümegi P. 2012. The Early Neolithic Agro-Ecological Barrier in the Carpathian Basin: A Zone for Interaction. In: Andreiter P., Bánffy E., Bartosiewicz L., Meid W., Metzner-Nebelsick C. (eds.), Archaeological, Cultural and Linguistic

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Tomasz Konopka, Anita Szczepanek, Marcin M. Przybyła and Piotr Włodarczak

References Ahlström T, Monar P. 2012. The placement of the feathers: violence among sub-boreal foragers from Gotland, central Baltic Sea. In: R Schulting and L Fibiger, editors. Sticks, stones and broken bones: Neolithic violence in a European perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 17-34. Casper J. 1889. Handbuch der gerichtlichen Medizin. Berlin. Christensen AN, Passalacqua NV, Bartelink EJ. 2014. Forensic Anthropology. Curent Methods and Practice. Elsevier Inc. Duday H. 2009. The

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Aldona Mueller-Bieniek, Piotr Kittel, Błażej Muzolf, Katarzyna Cywa and Przemysław Muzolf

References BIENIEK A. 2002. Archaeobotanical analysis of some early Neolithic settlements in the Kujawy region, central Poland, with potential plant gathering activities emphasised. Veget. Hist. Archaeobot., 11(1-2): 33-40. DOI: 10.1007/s003340200004 BIENIEK A. 2003a. Trawy o małych ziarniakach z wczesnoneolitycznych stanowisk archeologicznych na Kujawach. [Small-seeded grasses from the early Neolithic sites in Kujawy, central Poland]: 249-266. In: Zastawniak E. (ed.), Paleobotanika na przełomie wieków. [Palaeobotany at the

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Magdalena Moskal-Del Hoyo

exploitation of the forest in the Late Neolithic site of Les Jovades and Niuet (Alicante, Spain). Bulletin de la Société botanique de France, 139, Actualités Botaniques, (2/3/4): 697-714. BIENIEK A. & LITYŃSKA-ZAJĄC M. 2001. New finds of wild apple Malus sylvestris Mill. from the Neolithic sites in Poland. Veget. Hist. Archaeobot., 10: 105-106. BIRKS H.J.B. 2005. Mind the gap: how open were European primeval forests? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20(4): 154-156. DOI:10.1016/j.tree.2005.02.001 CAPPENBERG K. 2012. Landscape as

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Ioana-Iulia Olaru


This study will only deal with the Neolithic period which we distinguish from the Eneolithic one in the sense that in this period man only used tools made of stone and later on, in Eneolithic (Chalcolithic), he started using copper. In its first period, the Neolithic has new characteristics as a result of the progress of human communities; thus, as opposed to the Palaeolithic, man starts a new period with changed “clothes”. Firstly, man now starts to create and appreciate beauty as the Palaeolithic art did not have aesthetic purposes. But an important transformation regards the habitat, Neolithic settlements and buildings reflecting the increasing stability of communities, thus taking a step forward from Palaeolithic and their evolution to the higher levels of the future society, the Eneolithic one.

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Ganna Zaytseva, Eugeny Skakovskii and Goran Possnert

[1] Bobrinsky AA, 1999. Actual problems of the study of the ancient figulines. Samara. The state Samara pedagogical University press: 106pp (in Russian) [2] Bardet M, Foray MF and Trân QK, 2002. High-Resolution Solid-State CPMAS NMR Study of Archaeological Woods. Analytical Chemistry. 74(17): 4386–4390, DOI 10.1021/ac020145j. [3] Bonsail C, Cook G, Manson JL and Saderson D, 2002. Direct dating of Neolithic pottery: progress and prospects. Documenta

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Jianhui Jin, Yunming Huang, Zhizhong Li, Xuechun Fan, Zhiyong Ling, Zhixing Li and Xiaoju Liu

1 Introduction East coastal area of Fujian province, centring on the Funing bay, is a major concentrated area of Neolithic culture sites in the middle and lower reaches of Min River which is the longest river in Fujian province of China, with largest water and most extensive area. A large number of neolithic remains were found around this area. Those sites are the firsthand evidence for long-term use of marine resources and coastal environments in human evolution and subsequent development which is vital to understanding patterns of human subsistence ( Nian