.G. Speer, D.K. Matlock, Color Tint-Etching for Multiphase Steels. Advanced materials and processes 2003.  G. Vander Voort, Using microstructural analysis to solve practical problems, welding Metallography-Ferrous Metals 2004.  J. Chen, K. Sand, M.S. Xia, C. Ophus, R. Mohammadi, M.L. Kuntz Y. Zhou, D. Mitlin, TEM and nanoindentation Study of Weld Zone Microstructure of Diode Laser Joined. Metals and Materials Society and ASM International 2008.  M.V. Li, D.V. Niebuhr, L.L. Meekisho, D.G. Atteridge, A computational
G.Y. Perez-Medina, H.F. Lopez, F.A. Reyes-Valdés, A. Garza-Gomez and Luis M. López-Ochoa
Stanislava Fintová, Giancarlo Anzelotti, Radomila Konečná and Gianni Nicoletto
Casting Pore Characterization by X-Ray Computed Tomography and Metallography
Casting porosity is the main factor influencing the fatigue properties of Al-Si alloys. Due to the increasing use of aluminum castings, porosity characterization is useful for estimating their fatigue strength. In principle, a combination of metallographic techniques and statistical pore analysis is a suitable approach for predicting the largest defect size that is critical for the casting. Here, the influence of modifiers and casting technology on the largest pore size population in AlSi7Mg alloy specimens is obtained and discussed adopting the Murakami's approach. However, porosity evaluation is a challenge in the case of microshrinkage pores, which are frequently found in industrial castings. Their complicated morphology prevents a reliable definition of an equivalent defect size based on metallographic techniques. This contribution reports the application of X-ray tomography to the 3D reconstruction of real pores in cast Al-Si alloys and provides insight into the complication of microshrinkage pore sizing by metallography.
J. Szala and D. Kuc
References  F. Grosman, D. Woźniak, Hutnik-Wiadomości Hutniczne 3, 97-104 (2001).  K. Laber, H. Dyja, B. Koczurkiewicz, Materials Testing 57 (4), 301-305 (2015).  P. Kawulok, R. Kawulok, I. Schindler, S. Rusz, J. Kliber, P. Unucka, K.M. Čmiel, Metalurgija-Metallurgy 3, 299-302 (2014).  G. Vander-Voort, The Interlamellar Spacing of Pearlite, http://vacaero.com/informationresources/metallography-with-george--vander-voort.  G. Zhang, M. Enomoto, ISIJ International 49
A. Szczotok, J. Pietraszek and N. Radek
The study describes the influence of a surface modification in cored, thin-walled castings of blades from IN-713C nickel superalloy on γ' phase precipitates. The blades were produced by using the investment casting process in the laboratory conditions as parts for a low-pressure turbine rotor. The microstructural observations of the γ' phase precipitates on the cross sections of the blades were performed. The observations were followed by quantitative metallography evaluation, and finally, a comparison of the precipitates between one blade with the conventionally applied ceramic core and one with the core covered layer contained a surface modifier (5% of CoAl2O4) was made.
M. S. Soiński, A. Jakubus and K. Skurka
Engineering and Applied Physics of Częstochowa University of Technology. (in Polish)  Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 945-1: Microstructure of cast irons. Part 1: Graphite classification by visual analysis.  Soiński, M.S. (1986) Application of Shape Measurement of Graphite Precipitates in Cast Iron in Optimising the Spheroidizing Process. Acta Stereologica. 5, (2), 311-317.  Cybo, J. Jura, S. (1995). Functional description of isometric structures in quantitative metallography. Gliwice: Ed. of Silesian University of
K. J. Ducki, K. Rodak, J. Mendala and L. Wojtynek
Forming, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice (1998).  E. Hadasik, I. Schindler, Plasticity of metallic materials, Silesian University of Technology, House of Publishing, Gliwice (2004).  E. Hadasik, Arch. Metall. Mater. 50 (3), 729-746 (2005).  C.M. Sellars, W.J. Tegart, Int. Mater. Rev. 17, 1-24 (1972).  J. Szala, Computer Program Quantitative Metallography, MET- -ILO v. 3.0, Silesian University of Technology (1997).  J. Cwajna, M. Maliński, J. Szala, Mater. Eng
M.S. Soiński, P. Kordas, K. Skurka and A. Jakubus
). Functional description of isometric structures in quantitative metallography . Gliwice: Ed. Of Silesian University of Technology.
B. Dybowski, A. Kiełbus and R. Jarosz
Magnesium alloys due to their low density and high strength-to-weight ratio are promising material for the automotive and aerospace industries. Many elements made from magnesium alloys are produced by means of sand casting. It is essential to investigate impact of the applied mould components on the microstructure and the quality of the castings. For the research, six identical, 100x50x20mm plates has been sand cast from the Elektron 21 magnesium casting alloy. Each casting was fed and cooled in a different way: one, surrounded by mould sand, two with cast iron chills 20mm and 40mm thick applied, another two with the same chills as well as feeders applied and one with only the feeder applied. Solid solution grain size and eutectics volume fraction were evaluated quantitatively in Met-Ilo program, casting defects were observed on the scanning electron microscope Hitachi S3400N. The finest solid solution grain was observed in the castings with only the chills applied. Non metallic inclusions were observed in each plate. The smallest shrinkage porosity was observed in the castings with the feeders applied.
A.W. Bydałek, K. Najman, A. Kula, S. Biernat, L. Błaż and W. Wołczyński
Trial series of cast alloy MO59 obtained from qualified scrap was investigated. SEM and TEM of resulting precipitates were conducted. The SEM analysis demonstrated the dependence of silicon, phosphorus, iron, chromium and nickel in the composition of the so-called hard precipitates. TEM analysis showed the formation of phase AlFeSi and AlCr. Made studies have shown the important role of the composition of the batch melts brass CuZn39Pb2 type. The analysis of SEM and TEM resulting precipitates pointed to the formation of various forms of divisions, only one of which was described in the literature character of the so-called hard inclusions. The SEM studies demonstrated the dependence of the occurrence of inclusions rich in silicon, phosphorus, iron, chromium and nickel. In contrast, additional TEM analysis indicated the formation of AlFeSi phase type and AlCr. The results of the analyses referred to the structure of the batch. Due to the difficulty of obtaining recycled materials that do not contain these elements necessary to carry out further analyzes in the direction of defining the role of phosphorus in the formation of the so-called hard inclusions.
R. Bęczkowski and M. Gucwa
The surfacing technologies are used for constitution of protection layer against wear and is destined for obtaining coating with high hardness. Among many weldings methods currently used to obtain the hard surface layer one of the most effective way of hardfacing is using flux cored arc welding. This additional material gives more possibilities to make expected hard surface layer.
Chemical composition, property and economic factors obtained in flux cored wire are much richer in comparison to these obtained with other additional materials. This is the reason why flux cored wires give possibilities of application this kind of material for improving surface in different sectors of industry.
In the present paper the imperfection in the layers was used for hardfacing process in different situations to show the possible application in the surface layer. The work presents studies of imperfection of the welds, contains the picture of microstructures, macrostructures and shows the results of checking by visual and penetrant testing methods.