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Open access

Saša Polović, Vanja Ljoljić Bilić, Ana Budimir, Darko Kontrec, Nives Galić and Ivan Kosalec

Abstract

Aroylhydrazones 1–13 were screened for antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities in vitro. N′-(2-hydroxy-phenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (2), N′-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl-methylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (10), N′-(3,5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (11), and N′-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (12) showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, with MIC values (in µmol mL−1) of 0.18–0.23, 0.11–0.20, 0.16–0.17 and 0.35–0.37, resp. Compounds 11 and 12, as well as N′-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (6) and N′-(2-hydroxy-5- methoxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (8) showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with the lowest MIC values of 0.005–0.2, 0.05–0.12, 0.06–0.48 and 0.17–0.99 µmol mL−1. N′-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (7) showed antifungal activity against both fluconazole resistant and susceptible C. albicans strains with IC 90 range of 0.18–0.1 µmol mL−1. Only compound 11 showed activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231 comparable to the activity of nystatin (the lowest MIC 4.0 ×10−2 vs. 1.7 × 10−2 µmol mL−1). Good activity regarding multi-resistant clinical strains was observed for compound 12 against MRSA strain (MIC 0.02 µmol mL−1) and compounds 2, 6 and 12 against ESBL+ E. coli MFBF 12794, with the lowest MIC for compound 12 (IC 50 0.16 µmol mL−1). Anti-biofilm activity was found for compounds 2 (MBFIC 0.015–0.02 µmol mL−1 against MRSA) and 12 (MBFIC 0.013 µmol mL−1 against EBSL+ E. coli). In the case of compound 2 against MRSA biofilm formation, MBFIC values were comparable to those of gentamicin sulphate, whereas in the case of compound 12 and EBSL+ E. coli even more favourable activity compared to gentamicin was observed.

Open access

Nermin Hande Avcioglu and Isil Seyis Bilkay

Reservoirs of drug resistant bacterial genomes and extrachromosomal DNA segments are a growing problem and cause emergence of new multidrug resistant (MDR) strains [ 1 ]. Antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella infections are causing increasing morbidity and mortality, and an increase in health care costs worldwide. In epidemiological research, not only phenotypical analysis, but also genotypical analysis is conducted by using various molecular typing methods such as plasmid profiling, ribotyping, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to find genetic

Open access

Haddadi Azam, Somayeh Mikaili Ghezeljeh and Shavandi Mahmoud

.34 Ceftizoxime 5 22 27 <0.74 ESBL screening of strains by double disk diffusion showed that of the 111 E. coli isolates, 45 (40%) were ESBL positive and 22% of the ESBL-positive isolates carried class 1 integrons. The frequency of MDR in ESBL positive isolates was 93%. Discussion Isolates in this study were highly resistant to amoxicillin (79%) followed by tetracycline (64%) and co-trimoxazole (61%). Resistance to other antimicrobial agents were as follows: nitrofurantoin (7%) and amikacin (14%). These finding are comparable to those of Mansouri et

Open access

Cătălina Luncă, Olivia S. Dorneanu, Daniela Diculencu, Teodora Vremeră, Aida C. Bădescu, Simona Peter Olaru and Luminiţa S. Iancu

isolates from northwestern Russia and analysis of rifampin resistance using RNA/RNA mismatch analysis as compared to the line probe assay and sequencing of the rpoB gene. Res Microbiol. 2002;153(4):213-9. 18. Generozov EV, Akopian TA, Govorun VM, Chernousova LN, Larionova EE, Savinkova SN et al. Molecular characteristics of multiresistant clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Russia. Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol. 2000;(1):11-7. Russian 19. Nikolayevsky V, Brown T, Balabanova Y, Ruddy M, Fedorin I, Drobniewski F. Detection

Open access

Valentina P. Popova, Mariya P. Sredkova, Hristina H. Hitkova, Kaloyan T. Ivanov and Vladimir G. Popov

differentiate Enterococcus cassehjlavus and Enterococcus Call inarum from Enterococcus faecium spoc ics.group and from Enterococcus faecalis. J Gin Microbiol. 1996;34(IO):2607-8. 13. Enterococcus spp. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Second Informational Supplement MI00-S22. Ginical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2012;32(3):90-4. 14. Barisic Z, Punda-Polic V. Antibiotic resistance among cntcrocoocal strains isolated from clinical specimens. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2000; 16(1)65-8. 15

Open access

Bianca-Simona Trușcă, Irina Gheorghe, Luminita Marutescu, Carmen Curutiu, Florica Marinescu, Camelia Mihaela Ghiță, Elvira Borcan, Liliana Țuică, Vali Minciuna, Hilda-Edit Gherghin, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc and Veronica Lazar

, Löriczi LK, Tóth A. First description of bla(NDM-1), bla(OXA-48), bla(OXA-181) producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in Romania. Int J Med Microbiol. 2013;303(8):697-700. DOI: 10.1016/j. ijmm.2013.10.001 27. Czobor I, Gheorghe I, Banu O, Velican A, Lazăr V, Mihăescu G, Chifiriuc M.C. ESBL genes in Multi Drug Resistant Gram negative strains isolated in a one year survey from an Intensive Care Unit in Bucharest, Romania. Roumanian Biotechnological Letters. 2014;19(4):9553-6. 28. Mereuță AI, Bădescu AC, Dorneanu OS, Iancu LS, Tuchiluș CG

Open access

Athanasios Tselebonis, Evangelia Nena, Christos Nikolaidis, Theocharis Konstantinidis, Christos Kontogiorgis, Maria Panopoulou and Theodore C. Constantinidis

Abstract

Objective: To monitor microbes, focusing on drug resistance, on the hands of the personnel of four departments of a tertiary hospital (ICU, neonatal unit, internal medicine ward and surgical ward) and explore differences between departments, professions and genders.

Materials and methods: Hand sampling from 125 healthcare employees was conducted followed by isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance profiling of different microbial species.

Results: Staphylococcus spp was the most prevalent microbe (76/125, 60.8%), followed by different Gram-negative pathogens (45.6%). ICU employees had a significant probability to have Gram-negative contamination [OR 3.627 (95% CI 1.220-10.782)], independently of gender or profession. Staphylococcus spp presence was associated with working in the internal medicine ward [OR 6.976 (95% CI 1.767-25.540)] and the surgical ward [OR 5.795 (95% CI 1.586-21.178)]. Staphylococcus spp was more prevalent in males vs. females (81.3% vs. 54.9%, p=0.008) and in medical vs. nursing personnel (76.9% vs. 54.8, p=0.019).

In the majority of Gram-negative isolates (56.1%), at least one multi-drug resistant (MDR) or extensively drug resistant (XDR) strain was isolated. A statistically significant higher prevalence of XDR Gram-negative microbes was found on the hands of nursing personnel (22.2% vs. 2.3% for medical doctors, p=0.014). Only 2 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) out of the 12 Staphylococcus aureus positive samples were identified.

Conclusions: Employees in the ICU are more prone to Gram-negative and not to Gram-positive hand contamination. MDR and XDR pathogens are prevalent, and are associated with nursing profession.

Open access

Gulcan Sahal and Isil Seyis Bilkay

, but neither of the WBF P. mirabilis strains, were resistant to ampicillin and ceftazidime among β-lactam antibiotics, and tobramycin and gentamicin among aminoglycoside antibiotics. SBF P. mirabilis strains were the only strains showing resistance to ciprofloxacin ( Figure 4 ) . We found that most P. mirabilis strains, both of the SBF P. mirabilis strains, most of the 11 IBF strains, and 1 of the 2 WBF P. mirabilis strains were resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics and defined as multidrug resistant (MDR) ( Table 1 ). Additionally, both SBF P

Open access

In-Sun Choi, Choon-Mee Kim and Sook-Jin Jang

drug extrusion, thereby restoring antibacterial susceptibility, has increased [ 2 ]. Using drug combinations is one of the methods to effectively control the multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms [ 3 ]. Such combinations include antibiotic–antibiotic combinations and the pairing of an antibiotic with a nonantibiotic adjuvant molecule such as an EPI to directly target resistance mechanisms [ 3 ]. EPIs such as phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide (PaβN) and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) noticeably decreased the MICs of various antibiotics [ 4 , 5

Open access

Antibiotic resistance has become a global problem. Clones of bacteria with multidrug resistance (MDR) to important antibiotics including penicillins, cephamycins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones are increasing under the pressure of excessive and inappropriate antibiotic use with opportunities for global spread of MDR strains [ 1 , 2 ]. The burden of healthcare-associated infections such as pneumonia, surgical site infections, gastrointestinal, urinary tract, and primary bloodstream infections have been a serious problem arising in part from