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Anastazija Markevičiūtė and Vytautas Kuokštis

-O., Sprūds, A. Baltic-German Strategic Engagement: Realignment after the Eurocrisis?. Latvian Institute of International Affairs, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Retrieved from BNS, 2012, January 2. D.Grybauskaitė: Lietuvai nerealu 2014 metais įsivesti eurą [D.Grybauskaitė: euro adoption in 2014 is unrealistic for Lithuania]. Retrieved from Caporale, G.M., Ciferri, A., Girardi

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Klaudijus Maniokas, Darius Žeruolis and Sabina Karmazinaitė

References Baltijos tyrimai, 2014. Požiūris į demokratiją: dvi Lietuvos [View to Democracy: Two Lithuanias]. [online] Delfi, 20 August. Available at: <> [Accessed November 2014]. Bohle, D. and Greskovits, B., 2012. Capitalist Diversity on Europe’s Periphery. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Börzel, T., 2012. From Europeanisation to Diffusion. West European Politics, 35(1), pp.79-97. Börzel, T. and

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Dovilė Jakniūnaitė

References Agreement of Political Parties regarding the Main Goals and Objectives of the State Foreign Policy 2004-2008 , 2004, Vilnius, 5 October. Available at: <> [Accessed 1 October 2015]. Agreement of Political Parties regarding the Principles, Strategic Guidelines and Goals of Lithuanian Foreign Policy 2008-2012 [in Lithuanian], 2008, Vilnius, 28 October. Available at: <> [Accessed 11 October 2014

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Joanna Górska-Szymczak and Grzegorz Górski

, Paris 1952. Fiszma S., The Polish Renaissance and its European Context, Indiana 1988. Gierowski J.A., The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the XVIII th Century. From Anarchy to Well – organized State , Kraków 1996, Grodecki R., Działalność gospodarcza Kazimierza Wielkiego , [in:] Polska Piastowska [ Economic Activity of Casimir the Great, [in:] Piast’s Poland ], Grodecki R., Dzieje wewnętrzne Polski w XIII wieku, [in:] Polska Piastowska [ Poland in 13 th Century [in:] Piast’s Poland ], Warszawa 1969. Grodziski S., Salmonowicz

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Edita Bartnikaitė and Vilma Bijeikienė


Legal English, being among the most complex and multifaceted areas of English for Specific Purposes (ESP), has duly received considerable attention on the part of linguists, discourse and learner needs′ analysts, sociolinguists and ESP researchers (Cheng and Cheng, 2014; Hafner, 2013; Hartig and Lu, 2014; Huhta et al, 2013; Shuy 2001). Most research has been carried out to investigate lexical, syntactic, grammatical and other communicative competences of law students in various cycles of higher education. An area that is still highly in need of examination is the development of communicative competences of Legal English among law practitioners who might have had a course of Legal English in their law studies and face with an urge of revision or might have not been introduced to Legal English whatsoever. In light of these observations, the present study examines the needs and problems regarding the use of general and legal English faced by 34 law practitioners, namely lawyers and judges working at two law companies and a district court in Kaunas, Lithuania. The study assumes qualitative methodology including a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire. The results have revealed that communicative competence of legal practitioners gained during their formal education does not meet the demands of their legal practice. While skills of general English appear not to cause many problems, skills of legal English are not developed to an adequate level. Therefore, as the study shows, it is absolutely inevitable to develop and offer in-service education of Legal English carefully attuned to the diverse levels of competences and needs of legal practitioners.

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Michalina Krzyżak, Katarzyna Piotrowska, Dominik Maślach, Paweł Sowa, Bartosz Pędziński, Paweł Macek and Jan Karczewski

Sciences. Smailyte, G., & Kurtinaitis, J. (2008). Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania. BMC Public Health , 8(56). DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-8-56 Staszewski, J. (1979). Regionalne różnice umieralności na nowotwory złośliwe w Polsce w latach 1970–1974. Instytut Onkologii. Retrieved from Szczuka, I., & Roszkowski-Śliż, K. (2008). Rak płuca w Polsce w latach 1970–2004. Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska , 76(1), 19–28. Ustawa z dnia 29 sierpnia 2003 r. o urzędowych

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Vitalis Nakrošis

(3), pp.563-581. Nakrošis, V., 2015. The Influence of Government Priorities on Public-Administration Reforms in Europe. NISPACEE Journal of Public Administration and Policy, VIII(1), pp.21-40. Nakrošis, V., Vilpišauskas, R. and Kuokštis, V., 2015. Fiscal Consolidation and Structural Reforms in Lithuania in the Period 2008-2012: From Grand Ambitions to Hectic Firefighting. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 81(3), pp.522-540. Nemec, J., 2010. New Public Management and its Implementation in CEE: What Do We Know

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Mažvydas Jastramskis

REFERENCES Bartolini, S. and Mair P., 2007 (first published in 1990 by Cambridge University Press). Identity, Competition and Electoral Availability: The Stabilisation of European Electorates 1885-1985 . Essex: ECPR Press. Čivinskas, R. and Tolvaišis, L., 2006. Tarpbiudžetinis lėšų perskirstymas Lietuvoje: instituciniai interesai ir savivaldybių finansinis savarankiškumas. Viešoji politika ir administravimas , 16, pp. 87-99. Gediminas D., 2009. Analysis of a situation on local taxes in Lithuania. Intellectual Economics , 5 (1), pp. 21

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Vitalis Nakrošis and Sabina Bankauskaitė-Grigaliūnienė

in Sweden. Public Administration , 91(4), pp. 891-907. Delfi, 2013. „Darbiečiai“ nusitaikė į ES milijardus , 24 07 2013. Available at: < > [Accessed 5 October 2013]. Dimitrova, A. L., 2010. The new Member States of the EU in the Aftermath of Enlargement: Do New European Rules Remain Empty Shells? Journal of European Public Policy , 17(1), pp. 137-148. Dimitrova, A., 2005. Europeanization and Civil Service Reform in Central and Eastern

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Jogilė Stašienė

Populist Challenge. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian, pp. 62-80. Taggart, P., 2004. Populism and Representative Politics in Contemporary Europe. Journal of Political Ideologies, 9(3), pp. 269-288. The Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Lithuania, 2012. Election to the Seimas and the Referendum on the Construction of a New Nuclear Power Plant in the Republic of Lithuania. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed on 15 January 2016