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Open access

Andres Sierra-Soler, Jan Adamowski, Zhiming Qi, Hossein Saadat and Santosh Pingale

., A damowski J., K halil B. 2012. Using discrete wavelet transforms to analyze trends in streamflow and precipitation in Quebec and Ontario (1954–2008). Journal of Hydrology. Vol. 475 p. 204–228. N alley D., A damowski J., K halil B., O zga -Z ielinski B. 2013. Trend detection in surface air temperature in Ontario and Quebec, Canada during 1967–2006 using the discrete wavelet transform. Journal of Atmospheric Research. Vol. 132–133 p. 375–398. N amdar M., A damowski J., S aadat H., S harifi F., K hiri A. 2014. A new approach to developing LULC

Open access

Marta Szostak, Piotr Wężyk, Paweł Hawryło and Marcin Pietrzykowski

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of geoinformatics tools and generally available geodata for mapping land cover/use on the reclaimed areas. The choice of subject was dictated by the growing number of such areas and the related problem of their restoration. Modern technology, including GIS, photogrammetry and remote sensing are relevant in assessing the reclamation effects and monitoring of changes taking place on such sites. The LULC classes mapping, supported with thorough knowledge of the operator, is useful tool for the proper reclamation process evaluation.

The study was performed for two post-mine sites: reclaimed external spoil heap of the sulfur mine Machów and areas after exploitation of sulfur mine Jeziórko, which are located in the Tarnobrzeski district. The research materials consisted of aerial orthophotos, which were the basis of on-screen vectorization; LANDSAT satellite images, which were used in the pixel and object based classification; and the CORINE Land Cover database as a general reference to the global maps of land cover and land use.

Open access

Raj Singh Bhanwar Vishvendra and Anjan Sen

Abstract

In the near future, natural resources are very rapidly diminishing all over the globe. Which is very unhealthy for land ecosystem services. In the biodiversity, Tiger is an icon of healthy wildlife which is considered as a vital factor for maintaining Universal Food Chain System. This research paper is based on “Geo-Spatial Mapping of land use and land cover changes in the Core and Periphery Area of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India, 1975-2015, it’s a micro level Study based on primary and secondary data through GIS mapping and consider as a Socio-Economic & Physical factors to inter-connect with Tiger habitats. Especially, core and periphery LULC have been obtained from the Multispectral images from ETM and ETM+ sensors of Landsat and LISS-III and AWiFS sensors of Resourcesat-satellites. This study examines the spatial and temporal patterns of LULC change along the boundary of Ranthambhore in the Rajasthan from 1975 to 2015. Tiger Landscape change within all ecological zones will be evaluated. The Landsat TM and ETM imagery will be used to produce LULC classification maps for both areas using a hybrid supervised/unsupervised methods. LULC changes are measured using landscape metrics and change maps created by post-classification through change detection. Using all the raster maps and the final change detection of the reserve will be done through spatial analysis using the raster calculator tool in ArcGIS and Erdas and MS Excel 13. The study comes out with land use and land cover change in core and periphery areas of the reserve. The research also describes Human Encroachment, Impact on human colonization, interfere with domestic animals, Interbreeding, and the Migration in core and periphery areas, finally, the situation would be alarming for biodiversity of tiger habitat due to the high pressure of anthropogenic activities.

Open access

Marta Szostak, Piotr Wężyk, Marek Pająk, Paweł Haryło and Marek Lisańczuk

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine “Fryderyk” in Tarnowskie Góry. Tested area was located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (a large industrial region in Poland). It was a unique refuge habitat – Natura2000; PLH240008. The main aspect of this elaboration was to investigate the possible use of geotechniques and generally available geodata for mapping LULC changes and determining the spatial structure of vegetation. The presented study focuses on the analysis of a spatial structure of vegetation in the research area. This exploration was based on aerial images and orthophotomaps from 1947, 1998, 2003, 2009, 2011 and airborne laser scanning data (2011, ISOK project). Forest succession changes which occurred between 1947 and 2011 were analysed. The selected features of vegetation overgrowing spoil heap “Fryderyk” was determined.

The results demonstrated a gradual succession of greenery on soil heap. In 1947, 84% of this area was covered by low vegetation. Tree expansion was proceeding in the westerly and northwest direction. In 2011 this canopy layer covered almost 50% of the research area. Parameters such as height of vegetation, crowns length and cover density were calculated by an airborne laser scanning data. These analyses indicated significant diversity in vertical and horizontal structures of vegetation. The study presents some capacities to use airborne laser scanning for an impartial evaluation of the structure of vegetation.

Open access

Marta Szostak, Piotr Wężyk, Paweł Hawryło and Marta Puchała

Abstract

The role of image classification based on multi-source, multi-temporal and multi-resolution remote sensed data is on the rise in the environmental studies due to the availability of new satellite sensors, easier access to aerial orthoimages and the automation of image analysis algorithms. The remote sensing technology provides accurate information on the spatial and temporal distribution of land use and land cover (LULC) classes. The presented study focuses on LULC change dynamics (especially secondary forest succession) that occurred between 1974 and 2010 in the Błędów Desert (an area of approx. 1210 ha; a unique refuge habitat – NATURA 2000; South Poland). The methods included: photointerpretation and on-screen digitalization of KH-9 CORONA (1974), aerial orthoimages (2009) and satellite images (LANDSAT 7 ETM+, 1999 and BlackBridge – RapidEye, 2010) and GIS spatial analyses. The results of the study have confirmed the high dynamic of the overgrowth process of the Błędów Desert by secondary forest and shrub vegetation. The bare soils covered 19.3% of the desert area in 1974, the initial vegetation and bush correspondingly 23.1% and 30.5%. In the years 2009/2010 the mentioned classes contained: the bare soils approx. 1.1%, the initial vegetation – 8.7% and bush – 15.8%. The performed classifications and GIS analyses confirmed a continuous increase in the area covered by forests, from 11.6% (KH-9) up to 24.2%, about 25 years later (LANDSAT 7) and in the following 11 years, has shown an increase up to 35.7% (RapidEye 2010).

Open access

Firoz Ahmad, Md Meraj Uddin and Laxmi Goparaju

Abstract

Geospatial evaluation of various datasets is extremely important because it gives a better comprehension of the past, present and future and can therefore be significantly utilized in effective decision making strategies. This study examined the relationships, using geospatial tools, between various diversified datasets such as land use/land cover (LULC), long term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based changes, long term forest fire points, poverty percentage, tribal percentage, forest fire hotspots, climate change vulnerability, agricultural vulnerability and future (2030) climate change anomalies (RCP-6) of Jharkhand state, India, for a better understanding and knowledge of its vegetation health, LULC, poverty, tribal population and future climate change impact. The long term NDVI (1982-2006) evaluation revealed negative change trends in seven northwest districts of Jharkhand state, these were: Hazaribag, Ramgarh, Palamu, Lohardaga, Chatra, Garhwa and Latehar. The forests as well as the agriculture of these districts have lost their greenness during this period. The forest fire frequency events were found to be more pronounced in the land use/land cover of “tropical lowland forests, broadleaved, evergreen, <1000 m” category, and were roughly twice the intensity of the “tropical mixed deciduous and dry deciduous forests” category. In the nine districts of Jharkhand it was found that 40 % of the population was living below the poverty line which is around twice the national average. The highest poverty districts, in percentage, were: Garwah (53.93), Palamu (49.24), Latehar (47.99) and Chatra (46.2). The southwest and south of Jharkhand state shows a tribal population density of more than 40%. The climate change vulnerability was found to be highest in the district of Saraikela followed by Pashchim Singhbhum, whereas agricultural vulnerability was found to be highest in the district of Pashchim Singhbhum followed by Saraikela, Garhwa, Simdega, Latehar, Palamu and Lohardaga. The temperature anomalies prediction for the year 2030 shows an increasing trend in temperature with values of 0.8°C to 1°C in the state of Jharkhand. The highest increases were observed in the districts of Pashchim Singhbhum, Simdega and Saraikela. Based on these evaluations we can conclude that a few of the districts of Jharkhand, such as Pashchim Singhbhum, Garhwa, Palamu and Latehar need to be prioritized for development on an urgent basis. The outcomes of this study would certainly guide the policymakers to prepare more robust plans when keeping in mind the future climate change impacts for the prioritization of various districts of Jharkhand which suffer from extreme poverty, diminished livelihood and insignificant agricultural productivity for the betterment of the people of Jharkhand based on their adaptive capacity.

Open access

Yi Zhao, Mizuki Tomita, Ippei Harada and Keitarou Hara

Multi-Scale Effect on Landscape Pattern Analysis Using Satellite Data with a Range of Spatial Resolutions

In recent years, identifying the relationship between pattern and scale has emerged as a central issue in ecology and geography. Scale has been defined by grain or resolution but bias in results will occur if the scale is wrongly selected relevant to the landscape evaluation. In this research, satellite data of varying resolution, QuickBird (2.5m), ALOS/AVNIR-2 (10m), Terra/ASTER (15m) and Landsat/ETM+ (30m), were employed to analyze the scale effects of grain size. The research was implemented at Azeta, a typical rural landscape located in Sakura City, central Japan. Land-cover classifications were first implemented using the Maximum Likelihood Method on satellite data of varying resolution. Based on the results of these classifications, a number of landscape metrics imbedded in the FRAGSTATS were extracted for landscape pattern analysis. The results indicate that most landscape patterns show some degree of consistency and scaling relations such as power-law among the various satellite resolutions. The applicability of these various satellite data resolutions for landscape analysis in the target area was also evaluated.

Open access

Grazia Caradonna, Antonio Novelli, Eufemia Tarantino, Raffaela Cefalo and Umberto Fratino

Abstract

Mediterranean regions have experienced significant soil degradation over the past decades. In this context, careful land observation using satellite data is crucial for understanding the long-term usage patterns of natural resources and facilitating their sustainable management to monitor and evaluate the potential degradation. Given the environmental and political interest on this problem, there is urgent need for a centralized repository and mechanism to share geospatial data, information and maps of land change. Geospatial data collecting is one of the most important task for many users because there are significant barriers in accessing and using data. This limit could be overcome by implementing a WebGIS through a combination of existing free and open source software for geographic information systems (FOSS4G).

In this paper we preliminary discuss methods for collecting raster data in a geodatabase by processing open multi-temporal and multi-scale satellite data aimed at retrieving indicators for land degradation phenomenon (i.e. land cover/land use analysis, vegetation indices, trend analysis, etc.). Then we describe a methodology for designing a WebGIS framework in order to disseminate information through maps for territory monitoring. Basic WebGIS functions were extended with the help of POSTGIS database and OpenLayers libraries. Geoserver was customized to set up and enhance the website functions developing various advanced queries using PostgreSQL and innovative tools to carry out efficiently multi-layer overlay analysis. The end-product is a simple system that provides the opportunity not only to consult interactively but also download processed remote sensing data.

Open access

Sunita Singh and Praveen Kumar Rai

). “Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULC) in the Lake Malawi Drainage Basin, 1982-2005”, International Journal of Geosciences , vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 172-178. Coppin, P., Jonckheere, I., Nackaerts, K., Muys, B. & Lambin, E. (2004). Review article digital change detection methods in ecosystem monitoring: a review. International Journal of Remote Sensing 25:1565–1596. Fan, F., Weng, Q. and Wang, Y., (2007). Land Use and Land Cover Change in Guangzhou , China, from 1998 to 2003, Based on Landsat TM /ETM+ Imagery, Sensors,7, 1323-1342. Fluor C.P., (2014

Open access

Piotr Dzieszko

Abstract

Last decades of research have revealed the environmental impacts of Land-Use/Cover Change (LUCC) throughout the globe. Human activities’ impact is becoming more and more pronounced on the natural environment. The key activity in the LUCC projects has been to simulate the syntheses of knowledge of LUCC processes, and in particular to advance understanding of the causes of land-cover change. Still, there is a need of developing case studies regional models to understand LUCC change patterns. The aim of this work is to reveal and describe the main changes in LUCC patterns occurring in Poznań Lakeland Mesoregion according to CORINE Land Cover database. Change analysis was the basis for the identification of the main drivers in land cover changes in the study area. The dominant transitions that can be grouped and modelled separately were identified. Each submodel was combined with all submodels in the final change prediction process. Driver variables were used to model the historical change process. Transitions were modelled using multi-layer perceptron (MLP) method. Using the historical rates of change and the transition potential model scenario for year 2006 was predicted. Corine Land Cover 2006 database was used for model validation.