A., Courtney M.S., Hummelshøj P., and Jensen N.O., 2011. Increasing net CO 2 uptake by a Danish beech forest during the period from 1996 to 2009. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 151, 934-946. Quaschning V., 2003. Technology fundamentals. The sun as an energy resource. Renew. Energy World, 6(5), 90-93. Rabinowitch E.I., 1951. Photosynthesis and Related Processes. vol. II, part 1, Interscience Publ., New-York. Rebmann C., Aubinet M., Schmid H.P., et al., 2018. ICOS eddy covariance flux-station site setup. Int. Agrophys., 32, 471-494. Reda I
Arnaud Carrara, Pasi Kolari, Maarten Op de Beeck, Nicola Arriga, Daniel Berveiller, Sigrid Dengel, Andreas Ibrom, Lutz Merbold, Corinna Rebmann, Simone Sabbatini, Penelope Serrano-Ortíz and Sébastien C. Biraud
Corinna Rebmann, Marc Aubinet, HaPe Schmid, Nicola Arriga, Mika Aurela, George Burba, Robert Clement, Anne De Ligne, Gerardo Fratini, Bert Gielen, John Grace, Alexander Graf, Patrick Gross, Sami Haapanala, Mathias Herbst, Lukas Hörtnagl, Andreas Ibrom, Lilian Joly, Natascha Kljun, Olaf Kolle, Andrew Kowalski, Anders Lindroth, Denis Loustau, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Lutz Merbold, Stefan Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Dario Papale, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Marilyn Roland, Penélope Serrano-Ortiz, Lukas Siebicke, Rainer Steinbrecher, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Timo Vesala, Georg Wohlfahrt and Daniela Franz
Welles J., 2012a. Gas analyser. US Patent US 8,300,218. Date issued: October 30, 2012. Furtaw M., Eckles R., Burba G., McDermitt D., and Welles J., 2012b. Gas analyser. US Patent US 8,154,714. Date issued: April 10, 2012. Gielen B., Op de Beeck M., Loustau D., Ceulemans R., Jordan A., and Papale D., 2017. Integrated carbon observation system (ICOS): An Infrastructure to Monitor the European Greenhouse Gas Balance. In: Terrestrial ecosystem research infrastructures: challenges and opportunities (Ed. A. Chabbi). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. GILL
Bert Gielen, Manuel Acosta, Nuria Altimir, Nina Buchmann, Alessandro Cescatti, Eric Ceschia, Stefan Fleck, Lukas Hörtnagl, Katja Klumpp, Pasi Kolari, Annalea Lohila, Denis Loustau, Sara Marańon-Jimenez, Tanguy Manise, Giorgio Matteucci, Lutz Merbold, Christine Metzger, Christine Moureaux, Leonardo Montagnani, Mats B. Nilsson, Bruce Osborne, Dario Papale, Marian Pavelka, Matthew Saunders, Guillaume Simioni, Kamel Soudani, Oliver Sonnentag, Tiphaine Tallec, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Matthias Peichl, Radek Pokorny, Caroline Vincke and Georg Wohlfahrt
The Integrated Carbon Observation System is a Pan-European distributed research infrastructure that has as its main goal to monitor the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. The ecosystem component of Integrated Carbon Observation System consists of a multitude of stations where the net greenhouse gas exchange is monitored continuously by eddy covariance measurements while, in addition many other measurements are carried out that are a key to an understanding of the greenhouse gas balance. Amongst them are the continuous meteorological measurements and a set of non-continuous measurements related to vegetation. The latter include Green Area Index, aboveground biomass and litter biomass. The standardized methodology that is used at the Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem stations to monitor these vegetation related variables differs between the ecosystem types that are represented within the network, whereby in this paper we focus on forests, grasslands, croplands and mires. For each of the variables and ecosystems a spatial and temporal sampling design was developed so that the variables can be monitored in a consistent way within the ICOS network. The standardisation of the methodology to collect Green Area Index, above ground biomass and litter biomass and the methods to evaluate the quality of the collected data ensures that all stations within the ICOS ecosystem network produce data sets with small and similar errors, which allows for inter-comparison comparisons across the Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem network.
Maarten Op de Beeck, Bert Gielen, Lutz Merbold, Edward Ayres, Penelope Serrano-Ortiz, Manuel Acosta, Marian Pavelka, Leonardo Montagnani, Mats Nilsson, Leif Klemedtsson, Caroline Vincke, Anne De Ligne, Christine Moureaux, Sara Marańon-Jimenez, Matthew Saunders, Simone Mereu and Lukas Hörtnagl
., Acosta M., Altimir N., et al., 2018. Ancillary vegetation measurements at ICOS ecosystem stations. Int. Agrophys., 32, 645-664. Halliwell D.H. and Rouse W.R., 1987. Soil heat flux in permafrost-characteristics and accuracy of measurement. J. Climatol., 7, 571-584. Heitman J.L., Xiao X., Horton R., and Sauer T.J., 2008. Sensible heat measurements indicating depth and magnitude of subsurface soil water evaporation. Water Resour Res., 44, W00D05. Howard D.M. and Howard P.J.A., 1993. Relationships between CO 2 evolution, moisture content and
Leonardo Montagnani, Thomas Grünwald, Andrew Kowalski, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Stefan Metzger, Pavel Sedlák and Lukas Siebicke
A., Gerbig C., Hatakka J., Karion A., Miles N.L., Richardson S.J., Steinbacher M., Sweeney C., Wastine B., and Zellweger C., 2013. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 837-860, 2013, doi:10.5194/amt-6-837-2013. Saunders M., Dengel S., Moureaux C., et al., 2018. Assessing the impacts of site characteristics, management, disturbance and lateral fluxes on net ecosystem carbon dynamics at ICOS sites. Int. Agrophys., 32, 457-469. Siebicke L., Hunner M., and Foken T., 2012
Sigrid Dengel, Alexander Graf, Thomas Grünwald, Markus Hehn, Pasi Kolari, Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius, Lutz Merbold, Giacomo Nicolini and Marian Pavelka
Precipitation is one of the most important abiotic variables related to plant growth. Using standardised measurements improves the comparability and quality of precipitation data as well as all other data within the Integrated Carbon Observation System network. Despite the spatial and temporal variation of some types of precipitation, a single point measurement satisfies the requirement as an ancillary variable for eddy covariance measurements. Here the term precipitation includes: rain, snowfall (liquid water equivalent) and snow depth, with the latter two being of interest only where occurring. Weighing gauges defined as Integrated Carbon Observation System standard with the capacity of continuously measuring liquid and solid precipitation are installed free-standing, away from obstacles obstructing rain or snowfall. In order to minimise wind-induced errors, gauges are shielded either naturally or artificially to reduce the adverse effect of wind speed on the measurements. Following standardised methods strengthens the compatibility and comparability of data with other standardised environmental observation networks while opening the possibility for synthesis studies of different precipitation measurement methodologies and types including a wide range of ecosystems and geolocations across Europe.
Koen Hufkens, Gianluca Filippa, Edoardo Cremonese, Mirco Migliavacca, Petra D’Odorico, Matthias Peichl, Bert Gielen, Lukas Hörtnagl, Kamel Soudani, Dario Papale, Corinna Rebmann, Tim Brown and Lisa Wingate
The presence or absence of leaves within plant canopies exert a strong influence on the carbon, water and energy balance of ecosystems. Identifying key changes in the timing of leaf elongation and senescence during the year can help to understand the sensitivity of different plant functional types to changes in temperature. When recorded over many years these data can provide information on the response of ecosystems to long-term changes in climate. The installation of digital cameras that take images at regular intervals of plant canopies across the Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem stations will provide a reliable and important record of variations in canopy state, colour and the timing of key phenological events. Here, we detail the procedure for the implementation of cameras on Integrated Carbon Observation System flux towers and how these images will help us understand the impact of leaf phenology and ecosystem function, distinguish changes in canopy structure from leaf physiology and at larger scales will assist in the validation of (future) remote sensing products. These data will help us improve the representation of phenological responses to climatic variability across Integrated Carbon Observation System stations and the terrestrial biosphere through the improvement of model algorithms and the provision of validation datasets.
Denis Loustau, Nuria Altimir, Mireille Barbaste, Bert Gielen, Sara Marańón Jiménez, Katja Klumpp, Sune Linder, Giorgio Matteucci, Lutz Merbold, Marteen Op de Beek, Patrice Soulé, Anne Thimonier, Caroline Vincke and Peter Waldner
The nutritional status of plant canopies in terms of nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) exerts a strong influence on the carbon cycle and energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, in order to account for the spatial and temporal variations in nutritional status of the plant species composing the canopy, we detail the methodology applied to achieve consistent time-series of leaf mass to area ratio and nutrient content of the foliage within the footprint of the Integrated Carbon Observation System Ecosystem stations. The guidelines and defi-nitions apply to most terrestrial ecosystems.
Simone Sabbatini, Ivan Mammarella, Nicola Arriga, Gerardo Fratini, Alexander Graf, Lukas Hörtnagl, Andreas Ibrom, Bernard Longdoz, Matthias Mauder, Lutz Merbold, Stefan Metzger, Leonardo Montagnani, Andrea Pitacco, Corinna Rebmann, Pavel Sedlák, Ladislav Šigut, Domenico Vitale and Dario Papale
The eddy covariance is a powerful technique to estimate the surface-atmosphere exchange of different scalars at the ecosystem scale. The EC method is central to the ecosystem component of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, a monitoring network for greenhouse gases across the European Continent. The data processing sequence applied to the collected raw data is complex, and multiple robust options for the different steps are often available. For Integrated Carbon Observation System and similar networks, the standardisation of methods is essential to avoid methodological biases and improve comparability of the results. We introduce here the steps of the processing chain applied to the eddy covariance data of Integrated Carbon Observation System stations for the estimation of final CO2, water and energy fluxes, including the calculation of their uncertainties. The selected methods are discussed against valid alternative options in terms of suitability and respective drawbacks and advantages. The main challenge is to warrant standardised processing for all stations in spite of the large differences in e.g. ecosystem traits and site conditions. The main achievement of the Integrated Carbon Observation System eddy covariance data processing is making CO2 and energy flux results as comparable and reliable as possible, given the current micrometeorological understanding and the generally accepted state-of-the-art processing methods.
Daniela Franz, Manuel Acosta, Núria Altimir, Nicola Arriga, Dominique Arrouays, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Edward Ayres, Ana López-Ballesteros, Mireille Barbaste, Daniel Berveiller, Sébastien Biraud, Hakima Boukir, Timothy Brown, Christian Brümmer, Nina Buchmann, George Burba, Arnaud Carrara, Allessandro Cescatti, Eric Ceschia, Robert Clement, Edoardo Cremonese, Patrick Crill, Eva Darenova, Sigrid Dengel, Petra D’Odorico, Gianluca Filippa, Stefan Fleck, Gerardo Fratini, Roland Fuß, Bert Gielen, Sébastien Gogo, John Grace, Alexander Graf, Achim Grelle, Patrick Gross, Thomas Grünwald, Sami Haapanala, Markus Hehn, Bernard Heinesch, Jouni Heiskanen, Mathias Herbst, Christine Herschlein, Lukas Hörtnagl, Koen Hufkens, Andreas Ibrom, Claudy Jolivet, Lilian Joly, Michael Jones, Ralf Kiese, Leif Klemedtsson, Natascha Kljun, Katja Klumpp, Pasi Kolari, Olaf Kolle, Andrew Kowalski, Werner Kutsch, Tuomas Laurila, Anne de Ligne, Sune Linder, Anders Lindroth, Annalea Lohila, Bernhard Longdoz, Ivan Mammarella, Tanguy Manise, Sara Maraňón Jiménez, Giorgio Matteucci, Matthias Mauder, Philip Meier, Lutz Merbold, Simone Mereu, Stefan Metzger, Mirco Migliavacca, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Christine Moureaux, David Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Giacomo Nicolini, Mats B. Nilsson, Maarten Op de Beeck, Bruce Osborne, Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Mari Pihlatie, Andrea Pitacco, Radek Pokorný, Jukka Pumpanen, Céline Ratié, Corinna Rebmann, Marilyn Roland, Simone Sabbatini, Nicolas P.A. Saby, Matthew Saunders, Hans Peter Schmid, Marion Schrumpf, Pavel Sedlák, Penelope Serrano Ortiz, Lukas Siebicke, Ladislav Šigut, Hanna Silvennoinen, Guillaume Simioni, Ute Skiba, Oliver Sonnentag, Kamel Soudani, Patrice Soulé, Rainer Steinbrecher, Tiphaine Tallec, Anne Thimonier, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Patrik Vestin, Gaëlle Vincent, Caroline Vincke, Domenico Vitale, Peter Waldner, Per Weslien, Lisa Wingate, Georg Wohlfahrt, Mark Zahniser and Timo Vesala
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