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Paweł Domosławski, Tadeusz Łukieńczuk, Zdzisław Forkasiewicz, Waldemar Balcerzak, Wiktor Bednarz, Janusz Dawiskiba, Zbigniew Krawczyk, Beata Wojtczak, Robert Olewiński and Marzena Podhorska-Okołów

References Gittoes NJ, Franklyn JA: Hypertyroidism: Current treatment guidelines. Drugs 1998; 55: 543. Cooper DS: Hyperthyroidism. Lancet 2003; 362(9382): 459-68. Tapash K, Palit BS, Charles C et al.: The efficacy of thyroidectomy for Graves' Disease. A meta-analysis. J Surg Research 2000; 90: 161-65. Patwardhan N, Moront M, Rao S: Surgery still has a role in Graves' hyperthyroidism. Surgery 1993; 114,6: 1108-13. Winsa

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R. Mekova and M. Boyanov

REFERENCES 1. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid 2016; 26: 1343-1421. 2. Tun NN, Beckett G, Zammitt NN, et al. Thyrotropin receptor antibody levels at diagnosis and after thionamide course predict GravesDisease relapse. Thyroid 2016; 26: 1004-1009. 3. Sahlmann CO, Siefker U, Lehmann K, et al. Quantitative thyroid scintigraphy for the differentiation of Gravesdisease and hyperthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis

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S Baldane, SH Ipekci, R Evcen, GK Gedik, I Guler and L Kebapcilar

References Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Mansour E, El Ghoul R, Tohme C, Noun R, Sarkis R. Prevalence and risk factors for primary hyperparathyroidism in hyperthyroid patients. Head Neck 28, 420–426, 2006. Baxter JD, Bondy PK. Hypercalcemia of thyrotoxicosis. Annals of internal medicine 65, 429–442, 1996. Korytnaya E, Rao NG, Mayrin JV. An unusual case of hypercalcemia associated with Gravesdisease and vitamin d deficiency. Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes 4, 25–28, 2011. Lindblom P, Valdemarsson S, Westerdahl J, Tennvall J, Bergenfelz A

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Jing Yu and Yi-Yuan Tang

References 1. Geffken GR, Ward HE, Staab JP, Carmichael SL, Evans DL. Psychiatric morbidity in endocrine disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1998; 21:473-89. 2. Kathol RG, Delahunt JW. The relationship of anxiety and depression to symptoms of hyperthyroidism using operational criteria. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1986; 8:23-8. 3. Trzepacz PT, McCue M, Klein I, Levey GS, Greenhouse J. A psychiatric and neuropsychological study of patients with untreated Grave’s disease. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1988; 10

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Olesea Scrinic, Seila Ibadula and E. Circo

References 1. Hassold, T.J. & Jacobs, P.A. (1984). Trisomy in Man . Annual Review of Genetics. (18), 69-97. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ge.18.120184.000441. 2. De Luca, F., Corrias, A. & Salerno, M. (2010). Peculiarities of Gravesdisease in children and adolescents with Down’s syndrome. European Journal of Endocrinology.(162), 591-595. DOI: 10.1530/EJE-09-0751. 3. Popova, G. & Paterson,W.F. (2008). Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in Down’s syndrome: clinical presentation and evolution. Hormone Research . (70), 278-284. DOI

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Vesna Vrca, Ljiljana Mayer, Franjo Škreb, Dario Rahelić and Srećko Marušić

References G. J. Kahaly, S. K. Grebe, M. A. Lupo, N. McDonald and J. A. Sipos, Graves' disease; diagnostic and therapeutic challenges (multimedia activity), Am. J. Med.   124 (2011) 2-3; DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.03.001. L. H. Duntas, Thyroid disease and lipids, Thyroid   12 (2002) 287-293; DOI: 10.1089/10507250252949405287. U. Subudhi and G. B. Chainy, Expression of hepatic antioxidant genes in l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroid rats: regulation by vitamin E and curcumin, Chem

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Mirjana Paravina, Milenko Stanojević, Mirjana Veličković, Stanoje Petrović and Mirjana Milosavljević

). 4. Braun-Falco O, Petzold D. E.M.O. syndrome. Exophthalmoscircumscribed pretibial myxedema-hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Münchn Med Wochenschr 1967;79:1523-9. 5. Georgala S, Katoulis AC, Georgala C, Katoulis EC, Hatziolou E, Stavrianeas NG. Pretibial myxedema as the initial manifestation of Gravesdisease. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2002;16: 380-3. 6. Anderson CK, Miller F. Triad of exophthalmos, pretibial myxedema, and acropachy in a patient with Gravesdisease. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 48 (6): 970-2. 7

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Vladan Sekulić, Milena P. Rajić, Marina Vlajković, Slobodan Ilić, Miloš Stević, Ivana Mišić and Milan Božinović

References 1. Tomer Y, Huber A. The etiology of autoimmune thyroid disease: A story of genes and environment. J Autoimmun 2009; 32: 231-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2009.02.007 2. Prabhakar BS, Bahn RS, Smith TJ. Current perspective on the pathogenesis of Graves`disease and ophthalmopathy. Endocrine Reviews 2003; 24: 802-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/er.2002-0020 3. Bartalena L, Marcocci C, Tanda ML, Manetti L, Dell’Unto E, Bartolomei MP, et al. Cigarette smoking and treatment outcomes in Graves

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Aleksander Konturek, Marcin Barczyński, Stanisław Cichoń, Ryszard Anielski, Wojciech Cichoń, Jacek Jonkisz and Paweł Orlicki

surgical management of Graves' disease ANZ J Surg 2002; 72: 321-24. Kurihara H: Total thyroidectomy for the treatment of hyperthyroidism in patients with ophthalmopathy. Thyroid 2002; 12: 265-67. Alsanea O, Clark OH: Treatment of Graves' disease: the advantages of surgery. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2000; 29: 321-37. Bellantone R, Lombardi CP, Bossola M et al.: Total thyroidectomy for management of benign thyroid disease: review of 526 cases. World J Surg 2002; 26: 1468

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Zsuzsánna Réti, Iz Kun and Corina Cristina Radu Pop

References 1. Marcocci C, Bartalena L, Bogazzi F, Panicucci M, Pinchera A. Studies on the occurrence of ophthalmopathy in Graves' disease. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1989;120(4):473-8. 2. Bartley GB, Fatourechi V, Kadrmas EF, et al. Clinical features of Graves' ophthalmopathy in an incidence cohort. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121(3):284-90. 3. Mohaseb K, Linder M, Rootman J, et al. Development and validation of a patient symptom questionnaire to facilitate early diagnosis of thyroidassociated orbitopathy in