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Jacek Więcławski

References Åslund, A. (2011), ‘The demise of the Soviet economic system’, International Politics 48, 4/5 pp. 545-561. Brooks, S. G., Wohlforth, W.C. (2000/01), ‘Power, Globalization, and the End of the Cold War. Reevaluating a Landmark Case for Ideas’, International Security 25, 3 pp. 5-53. Brown, A, (2004), Gorbachev and the End of the Cold War, [in:] Ending the Cold War Interpretations, Causation, and the Study of International Relations, Richard K. Herrmann and Richard Ned Lebow (eds.), Palgrave Macmillan

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Olga Nicoara


The Baltic people of Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia gained recognition with their successful use of a cultural tool, singing folkloric songs, to protest collectively against their common Soviet oppressor in the summer of 1988, preceding the collapse of the Soviet Union. Rational-choice theorists have argued that large rebellious movements are paradoxical because the larger the number of potential revolutionaries, the greater the leadership, participation, and coordination problems they face (Olson, 1971; Tullock, 1974). This paper investigates Estonia’s Singing Revolution and illustrates how ethnic Estonians used their shared cultural beliefs and singing traditions as a tacit, informal institutional solution to overcome the collective-action problems with organizing and participating in mass singing protests against the Soviet regime. The paper goes further to extend the standard rational-choice framework and to include a more dynamic, entrepreneurial-institutional perspective on socio-cultural change by accounting for the role of cultural leaders as cultural entrepreneurs, a subset of institutional entrepreneurs. The success of Estonia’s Singing Revolution can be ultimately attributed to leadership in the form of cultural entrepreneurship going back to pre-Soviet Estonian times. The revived legacy of ancient shared beliefs, folkloric practices, and singing tradition represented the necessary social capital for the Estonian people to voice collectively shared preferences for political and economic governance during a window of constitutional opportunity. Mikhail Gorbachev’s Glasnost, a policy aimed to improve Soviet formal institutions by fostering freedom of speech and political transparency, also provided a context propitious for the Singing Revolution because it lowered the perceived costs of participation in the rebellious singing and opened a window of opportunity for political change.

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B. Andriyevsky, W. Janke, V.Yo. Stadnyk and M.O. Romanyuk

. [23] NIKANOROV S.P., BURENKOV YU.A., STEPANOV A.V., Sov. Phys. Solid State, 13 (1971), 2516. [24] OKHOTIN A.S., PUSHKARSKII A.S., GORBACHEV V.V., Thermophysical Properties of Semiconductors, "Atom" Publ. House, 1972. (in Russian). [25] DESAL P.D., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 15 (1986), 967. [26] SHANKS H.R., MAYCOCK P.D., SIDLES P.H., DANIELSON G.C., Phys. Rev., 130 5 (1963), 1743. [27] GLASSBRENNER C.J., SLACK G.A., Phys. Rev., 134 (1964), A1058. [28] LEE Y., HWANG G.S., Phys. Rev. B, 86

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David Ramiro Troitiño, Karoline Färber and Anni Boiro

), ‘Gorbachev, Mitterrand, and the emergence of the post-Cold War order in Europe,’ Europe-Asia Studies , vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 290–320. Pedersen, T. (1998), Germany, France and the Integration of Europe: A Realist Interpretation , London & New York: Pinter. Powell, C. (2015), The Long Road to Europe: Spain and the European Community, 1957–1986 , Working Paper, 11 June 2015, Madrid: Elcano Royal Institute. Ramiro Troitiño, D. (2008), ‘De Gaulle and the European Communities,’ Proceedings of the Institute for

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Tomorrow’s Journalists

Trends in the Development of the Journalistic Profession as Seen by Swedish and Russian Students

Gunnar Nygren, Elena Degtereva and Marina Pavlikova

; Yassen (eds.) Russian Media Challenge . Helsinki: Kikimora publications. Richter A. (2007) Post-Soviet Perspective on Censorship and Freedom of the Media . Moscow: IKAR. Russian “SMI i obshchestvo: Modeli vzaimodeistvii”, in Zassoursky, Y.N., and Zdravomyslova, O.M. (eds.) Glasnost i zhurnalistika 1985-2005 [Glasnost and Journalism 1985-2005]. Moscow: Gorbachev Foundation & Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, 168-177. Shoemaker, Pamela J., and Reese, Stephen D. (1996) Mediating the Message: Theories of Influences on Mass Media Content

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Andrej Stopar

Affairs of the Russian Federation: Chernyaev, Anatoli (2008): Sovmestnyi ishod. Dnevnik dvuh epoh 1972–1991 . Moscow. Fadeyev, Yevgeni (1991): Razvyazivaniye uzlov nachalos’. Pravda , 10 June 1991: 5. Fadeyev, Yevgeni (1992): Proshchay, federativnaya Yugoslaviya! Pravda , 17 January 1992: 5. Georgieva, Natalya – Georgiev, Vladimir (2006): Istoriya Rossii . Moscow: MGU, Velbi. Gorbachev, Mikhail (1987): Perestroika i novoe myshlenie dlia nashei strany i dlia vsego mira. Moscow: Politizdat. Gorlov, Vladimir (1991): Voyna po

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Maria A. Arapova

. (2002). Smiling in children: Displays and their meanings. In M. H. Abel (Ed.), An empirical reflection on the smile (pp. 137-154). New York: Edwin Mellen Press. CALDARA, R. (2010). Beyond smiles: The impact of culture and race in embodying and decoding facial expressions. Behavioral and brain sciences, 33, 438-439. Enter the Bear, Smiling. British leaders, public, charmed by Gorbachev. (1984, December 18). Ottawa Citizen, p. A12 GABRIELYAN, A. A. (2015). Korpusnyj analis emocionalnogo koncepta smile/laugh v britanskom I amerikanskom

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Oleg Yanitsky

transnational contention: ‘Two Activist Solitudes’ or a ‘New World All Together’. Mobilization: An International Journal , 10 (1): 53-72. Tilly, C. (2004) Social Movements , 1768—2004. London: Paradigm Publisher. Weiner, D. R. (1988) Models of Nature: Ecology, Conservation, and Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia , Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Weiner, D. R. (1999) A Little Corner of Freedom. Russian Nature Protection from Stalin to Gorbachev . Berkeley, Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. Yanitsky, O. (1996) ‘The

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Jozef Vozár, Ján Spišiak, Anna Vozárová, Jakub Bazarnik and Ján Krái

. Nature 258, 57-59. Ganino C., Arndt N.T., Zhou M.F., Gaillard F. & Chauvel C. 2008: Interaction of magma with sedimentary wall rocks and magnetite ore genesis in the Panzihua mafic intrusion, SW China. Miner. Deposita 43, 677-694. Hawkesworth C.J., Lightfoot C.J., Fedorenko V.A., Bleke S., Naldrett J., Doherty W. & Gorbachev N.S. 1995: Magma differentiation and mineralisation in Siberian continental flood basalts. Lithos 34, 61-88. He Q., Xiao L., Balta B., Gao R. & Chen J.Y. 2010: Variety and complexity of the late

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Vladimír Baar and Daniel Jakubek

, persons connected to the National Patriotic Front were arrested and deported. Professor Ghimpu lost his position at the university and spent 6 years in prison for “subversive activity”. Thereafter, he became a prominent dissident, active in the Moldavian independent movement in the period of Mikhail Gorbachev’s Perestroika More at . A big change came about with the Russian politician Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985. Through reforms of Perestroika and Glasnost