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Ewa Błońska, Jarosław Lasota and Kazimierz Januszek

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase and urease) in trophically diverse Gleysols. Efforts to establish the relationship between enzymatic activity and physico-chemical properties of various subtypes of Gleysols were attempted. Dehydrogenase activity was best correlated with carbon content and acidity among the studied properties of soils. Urease activity was correlated with the reaction pf soil. Enzyme activity differentiates subtypes of Gleysols, which are characterized by a different type of soil humus. The dehydrogenase activity was higher in gleysols with peat or muck of swamp habitats. The opposite trend was found in the urease activity. The urease activity was the highest in the gleysols without organic matter. The studies showed that enzymatic activity is closely related to the type of accumulated organic matter and at the same time with species variety of plant communities..

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Grzegorz Jarnuszewski

Abstract

Post-bog soils developed on carbonate sediments are closely related to a young-glacial landscape and postglacial lakes. Drainage of biogenic accumulation area leads to a series of transformations in accumulated formations, including the process of decession. The studies conducted in the years 2009–2012 were focused on post-bog soils near lakes: Strzeszowskie, Sitno and Drawskie in Western Pomerania. The examined soils belong to murshic soils and gleysols (The classification of Polish soils). Mursh horizons contained from 0.2 to 43.3% of carbonate and from 27.2 to 77.6% of non-carbonates fractions (Ncf), and varying amount of organic matter depending on the degree of mineralisation. Specific density of surface horizons was in the range from 1.76 to 2.33 Mg·m−3, and bulk density from 0.28 to 0.68 Mg·m−3. Higher porosity was found in mursh organic soils in comparison to gleysols. The studies showed that the content of carbonate fraction was related with specific density, bulk density, porosity and water capacity. Obtained results of physical and physico-chemical analysis indicate that dewatering depth of post-bog soils developed on limnic limestone are reflected in worsened water retention properties and reduced capillary ascent in the upper layers of carbonate formations of gleysols.

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Michał Kozłowski and Jolanta Komisarek

Abstract

The paper presents results of determination of temporal changes in water table depths in the toposequence of Retisols/Luvisols and Phaeozems/Gleysols. Assessment of temporal trends in the water table depth was made with the use of the linear regression analysis. The results obtained indicate that the mean water table depth and mean high and low water table depths were deeper in the soil at the upper part of the slope in comparison with soil located at the footslope. A higher amplitude of water table was observed in Retisols than in Gleysols but the highest variability of water table level was noted in the soils at the footslope compared to those at the slope summit. In Retisols, with each month of observation from 1993 to 2012, the water table showed a tendency to increase. These trends were the highest from January to April, which may be related to the tendency of increasing monthly sums of precipitation in December, January and February. In the Gleysol at the footslope, in the period 1993–2012 and in the vegetation season, the water table depth showed a tendency to decrease. This trend may be due to the impact of water table on the soil water content at the root zone, which is used in the process of evapotranspiration.

Open access

Beata Łabaz, Adam Bogacz and Bartłomiej Glina

Związki Próchniczne Czarnych Ziem Leśnych w Parku Krajobrazowym "Dolina Baryczy"

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Łukasz Mendyk, Marcin Świtoniak, Renata Bednarek and Adam Falkowski

Abstract

Construction and operation of water mills had influenced the transformation of the relief and water conditions, as well as the soil cover around them. The study area includes the former Oleszek mill pond basin, located near the Borówno village, western part of the Chełmińskie Lakeland, about 20 km northeast of Toruń. The objective of the study was to determine the genesis of the soils developed from the Oleszek mill pond basin sediments. Five soil profiles were selected in the basin of the former mill pond, within the 550 m transect located along the Struga Rychnowska river. All of the analysed soils developed from the sediments filling the former mill pond basin. They have been developed as a result of a number of overlapping processes such as mud-forming, alluvial, colluvial and gleyic process. According to the Polish classification system (Classification of Polish Soils 2011) (CPS) two of the soils (profiles 3 and 4) derived from organo-mineral and organic materials are typical organic limnic soils. Systematic position of another two soils (2 and 5) was proposed as muddy soils. Due to the problems of classification of such soils, implementation of the muddy soils or muddy-gleyic soils subtypes (in Polish: gleby mułowate lub mułowato-glejowe) should be considered during developing of the next update of Classification of Polish Soils. These four profiles were classified as Histosols (profiles 3 and 4) and Gleysols (profiles 2 and 5) in WRB (2014). Pedons developed from alluvial materials (alluvial soils in CPS 2011 or Fluvic Phaeozems in WRB 2014) occurred in the proximal part of the basin.

Open access

Łukasz Mendyk, Piotr Hulisz, Grzegorz Kusza, Marcin Świtoniak, Leszek Gersztyn and Barbara Kalisz

Abstract

This paper aims to assess the usefulness of magnetic susceptibility measurements in pedological studies of mill pond sediments. The study area includes the former Turznice mill pond basin located in the south-eastern part of the Grudziądz Basin. Four soil profiles were selected within the transect located along the longitudinal axis of the basin. The following soil properties were determined in the collected samples: bulk density, particle size distribution, pH, content of carbonates, approximate content of organic matter (LOI), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (Nt), and the pseudo-total contents of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd). The obtained results were correlated with the specific (mass) magnetic susceptibility (χ). This study revealed that the variability of the soil cover in the basin was driven by different sedimentation conditions. The different composition of natural terrace deposits versus mill pond sediments has been well reflected in the magnetic properties. However, the possibility cannot be excluded that a pedogenic (gleyic) process is the key factor causing the vertical variability of magnetic properties in studied soils.

Open access

Stanisław Brożek

Abstract

The paper presents critical remarks connected with forest soils in Polish Soil Classification V edition, which constitute about 30% lands of Polish land. Detailed remarks refer to: soils units, rules of issue, nomenclature, place of rendzinas in Systematic, fusion of gleysols and stagnosols, new type of folisols, changes in traditional nomenclature of histosols, different soil types with the same diagnostic horizon, nomenclature and symbols of humus horizons.

Open access

Jacek Długosz, Barbara Kalisz and Andrzej Łachacz

Abstract

Soils in two river valleys (Rozoga and Omulew) in north-eastern Poland were investigated. The valleys are located on a sandy outwash plain formed during the Vistulian (Weichelian) Glaciation. The soils are drained, used as meadows and classified as Fluvic Umbric Gleysol, Fluvic Mollic Gleysol, and Eutric Fluvic Histic Gleysol (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015). The aim of the study was to identify the composition of mineral matter and to determine the types of clay minerals and intermediate stages of clay minerals by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The studied floodplain soils are rich in organic matter and contain considerable mineral alluvial admixtures. The content of clay fraction (< 2.0 μm) is low (0.02–5.61% of total mineral matter). Higher content of clay fraction was noted in soils with elevated content of organic matter, which can be evidence of simultaneous accumulation of both components. In deeper depressions occurring in river valleys (oxbow lakes), a specific deposit termed silty telmatic mud (16–24% TOC, 50–75% silt, 3.1–5.6% clay fraction content) was accumulated. On the other hand, in shallow depressions, a muddy deposit was accumulated (5.7–7.7% TOC, sandy texture). The main identified clay minerals were smectite, vermiculite, illite and kaolinite as well as variety of mixed-layer clays. Alluvial clay admixture in studied soil formations showed mineralogical similarity to typical floodplain mineral soils (Fluvisols). Mineral fraction of studied soils is mostly of allochthonous origin.

Open access

Kamil Skic, Patrycja Boguta and Zofia Sokołowska

Abstract

Parameters of specific surface area as well as surface charge were used to determine and compare sorption properties of soils with different physicochemical characteristics. The gravimetric method was used to obtain water vapour isotherms and then specific surface areas, whereas surface charge was estimated from potentiometric titration curves. The specific surface area varied from 12.55 to 132.69 m2 g−1 for Haplic Cambisol and Mollic Gleysol soil, respectively, and generally decreased with pH (R=0.835; α = 0.05) and when bulk density (R=−0.736; α = 0.05) as well as ash content (R=−0.751; α = 0.05) increased. In the case of surface charge, the values ranged from 63.00 to 844.67 μmol g−1 Haplic Fluvisol and Mollic Gleysol, respecively. Organic matter gave significant contributions to the specific surface area and cation exchange capacity due to the large surface area and numerous surface functional groups, containing adsorption sites for water vapour molecules and for ions. The values of cation exchange capacity and specific surface area correlated linearly at the level of R=0.985; α = 0.05.

Open access

Dániel Balla, Tamás Mester, László Márta, Dávid Molnár, Norbert Barkóczi, Marianna Zichar, Ágnes Botos and Tibor József Novák

Abstract

In our study, by investigating reambulated soil profiles from the Nagy-Sárrét region in Hungary, we attempt to determine the extent of changes which have occurred due to effects which impacted the landscape in terms of the soil chemistry properties of soil profiles exposed during the Kreybig soil survey more than 70 years ago. Based on the results, in the areas used as grassland, we observed a decrease in pH and an increase in the humus content of the topsoil. The increased CaCO3 following the chemical improvement of the soil which was used as cropland is still characteristic of the area. During the past decades, the investigated soils have been affected by significant changes with regard to water management, which have also modified the investigated parameters. We have classified the reambulated soil profiles among the Solonetz, Vertisol, and Gleysol reference groups based on the World Reference Base of Soil Resources (WRB) diagnostic system.