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Daniela Franz, Manuel Acosta, Núria Altimir, Nicola Arriga, Dominique Arrouays, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Edward Ayres, Ana López-Ballesteros, Mireille Barbaste, Daniel Berveiller, Sébastien Biraud, Hakima Boukir, Timothy Brown, Christian Brümmer, Nina Buchmann, George Burba, Arnaud Carrara, Allessandro Cescatti, Eric Ceschia, Robert Clement, Edoardo Cremonese, Patrick Crill, Eva Darenova, Sigrid Dengel, Petra D’Odorico, Gianluca Filippa, Stefan Fleck, Gerardo Fratini, Roland Fuß, Bert Gielen, Sébastien Gogo, John Grace, Alexander Graf, Achim Grelle, Patrick Gross, Thomas Grünwald, Sami Haapanala, Markus Hehn, Bernard Heinesch, Jouni Heiskanen, Mathias Herbst, Christine Herschlein, Lukas Hörtnagl, Koen Hufkens, Andreas Ibrom, Claudy Jolivet, Lilian Joly, Michael Jones, Ralf Kiese, Leif Klemedtsson, Natascha Kljun, Katja Klumpp, Pasi Kolari, Olaf Kolle, Andrew Kowalski, Werner Kutsch, Tuomas Laurila, Anne de Ligne, Sune Linder, Anders Lindroth, Annalea Lohila, Bernhard Longdoz, Ivan Mammarella, Tanguy Manise, Sara Maraňón Jiménez, Giorgio Matteucci, Matthias Mauder, Philip Meier, Lutz Merbold, Simone Mereu, Stefan Metzger, Mirco Migliavacca, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Christine Moureaux, David Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Giacomo Nicolini, Mats B. Nilsson, Maarten Op de Beeck, Bruce Osborne, Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Mari Pihlatie, Andrea Pitacco, Radek Pokorný, Jukka Pumpanen, Céline Ratié, Corinna Rebmann, Marilyn Roland, Simone Sabbatini, Nicolas P.A. Saby, Matthew Saunders, Hans Peter Schmid, Marion Schrumpf, Pavel Sedlák, Penelope Serrano Ortiz, Lukas Siebicke, Ladislav Šigut, Hanna Silvennoinen, Guillaume Simioni, Ute Skiba, Oliver Sonnentag, Kamel Soudani, Patrice Soulé, Rainer Steinbrecher, Tiphaine Tallec, Anne Thimonier, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Patrik Vestin, Gaëlle Vincent, Caroline Vincke, Domenico Vitale, Peter Waldner, Per Weslien, Lisa Wingate, Georg Wohlfahrt, Mark Zahniser and Timo Vesala

REFERENCES Anthoni P.M., Knohl A., Rebmann C., Freibauer A., Mund M., Ziegler W., Kolle O., and Schulze E.-D., 2004. Forest and agricultural land-use-dependent CO 2 exchange in Thuringia, Germany. Glob. Change Biol., 10, 2005-2019, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00863.x. ArcGis, 2012. Continents shapefile, http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=3c4741e22e2e4af2bd4050511b9fc6ad (28 Dec 2017). Arneth A., Harrison S.P., Zaehle S., et al., 2010. Terrestrial bio-geochemical feedbacks in the climate system. Nat. Geosci., 3, 525-532, doi:10

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Corinna Rebmann, Marc Aubinet, HaPe Schmid, Nicola Arriga, Mika Aurela, George Burba, Robert Clement, Anne De Ligne, Gerardo Fratini, Bert Gielen, John Grace, Alexander Graf, Patrick Gross, Sami Haapanala, Mathias Herbst, Lukas Hörtnagl, Andreas Ibrom, Lilian Joly, Natascha Kljun, Olaf Kolle, Andrew Kowalski, Anders Lindroth, Denis Loustau, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Lutz Merbold, Stefan Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Dario Papale, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Marilyn Roland, Penélope Serrano-Ortiz, Lukas Siebicke, Rainer Steinbrecher, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Timo Vesala, Georg Wohlfahrt and Daniela Franz

-94. Aubinet M., Grelle A., Ibrom A., Rannik Ü., Moncrieff J., Foken T., et al., 2000. Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: the EUROFLUX methodology. Adv. Ecol. Res., 30. doi:10.1016/s0065-2504(08)60018-5. Aubinet M., Feigenwinter C., Heinesch B., Bernhofer C., Canepa E., Lindroth A., et al., 2010. Direct advection measurements do not help to solve the night-time CO 2 closure problem: Evidence from three different forests. Agric. For. Meteorol. 150: 655-664. doi: http://dx.doi . Aubinet M., Joly L., Loustau D., De Ligne A., Chopin

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M. Kunickis, M. Balodis, U. Sarma, A. Cers and O. Linkevics

Abstract

Energy policy of the European Community is implemented by setting various goals in directives and developing support mechanisms to achieve them. However, very often these policies and legislation come into contradiction with each other, for example Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, repealing Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand.

In this paper, the authors attempt to assess the potential conflicts between policy political objectives to increase the share of high-efficiency co-generation and renewable energy sources (RES), based on the example of Riga district heating system (DHS).

If a new heat source using biomass is built on the right bank of Riga DHS to increase the share of RES, the society could overpay for additional heat production capacities, such as a decrease in the loading of existing generating units, thereby contributing to an inefficient use of existing capacity.

As a result, the following negative consequences may arise: 1) a decrease in primary energy savings (PES) from high-efficiency cogeneration in Riga DHS, 2) an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Baltic region, 3) the worsening security situation of electricity supply in the Latvian power system, 4) an increase in the electricity market price in the Lithuanian and Latvian price areas of Nord Pool power exchange.

Within the framework of the research, calculations of PES and GHG emission volumes have been performed for the existing situation and for the situation with heat source, using biomass. The effect of construction of biomass heat source on power capacity balances and Nord Pool electricity prices has been evaluated.

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Leonardo Montagnani, Thomas Grünwald, Andrew Kowalski, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Stefan Metzger, Pavel Sedlák and Lukas Siebicke

Biology, 2(3), 169-182, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.1996.tb00070.x. Grace J., Malhi Y., Lloyd J., McIntyre J., Miranda A.C., Meir P., and Miranda H.S., 1996. The use of eddy covariance to infer the net carbon dioxide uptake of Brazilian rain forest. Glob. Change Biol., 2, 209-217, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486. 1996.tb00073.x Greco S. and Baldocchi D., 1996. Seasonal variations of CO 2 and water vapour exchange rates over a temperate deciduous forest. Global Change Biol., 2(3), 183-197. Gu L., Massman W.J., Leuning R., Pallardy S.G., Meyers T., Hanson P

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Jan Tyszka, Andrzej Stolarek and Ewa Fronczak

, ( Framework of the agricultural ecology ), PWN, Warszawa, 348. Rykowski K., 1999, Assessment of the importance of forests to reduce the global change (counteracting and mitigation of the impacts of GHG) , Geographica Polonica, 72, 2, 27–44. Rykowski K., 2005, O wpływie zmian klimatycznych na lasy i leśnictwo , ( About the influence of climate changes on forests and forestry) , Biblioteka Leśniczego, 244, Wyd. Świat, Warszawa. Rykowski K. (ed.), 2008, Climate change, Forest, Forestry Relationships , Centrum Informacyjne Lasów Państwowych, Warszawa, pp 70

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Laszló Toth, Balint Horvath, Zsolt Fulop and Csaba Fogarassy

design: heating, ventilation and air conditioning. International Journal of Energy, Environment and Economics Volume 22 (2014), No. 3. pp. 189-233. [13] Renaudeau D., Collin A., Yahav S., Basilio V., Gourdine JL., Collier RJ. Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production. Animal Volume 6 (2012), No. 5, pp. 707-728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731111002448 [14] Nguyen TLT ., Hermansen JE., Mogensen L. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU. Energy Policy Volume 38

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M. Can Arslan and Metin Turkay

, 6, 1990, 947-50. [Reprinted from Factory: The Magazine of Management, 10 , 2, 1913, 135-136]. [27] Turkay M., Environmentally conscious supply chain management, in: Papageorgiou L., Georgiadis M. (eds.), Process systems engineering: supply chain optimization , WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, 2008, 45-86. [28] Wiedmann T., Minx J., A definition of carbon footprint, in: Pertsova C.C. (ed.), Ecological economics research trends , Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge NY, USA, 2008, 1-11. [29] GHG Protocol, The Greenhouse Gas

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Marian Pavelka, Manuel Acosta, Ralf Kiese, Núria Altimir, Christian Brümmer, Patrick Crill, Eva Darenova, Roland Fuß, Bert Gielen, Alexander Graf, Leif Klemedtsson, Annalea Lohila, Bernhard Longdoz, Anders Lindroth, Mats Nilsson, Sara Maraňón Jiménez, Lutz Merbold, Leonardo Montagnani, Matthias Peichl, Mari Pihlatie, Jukka Pumpanen, Penelope Serrano Ortiz, Hanna Silvennoinen, Ute Skiba, Patrik Vestin, Per Weslien, Dalibor Janous and Werner Kutsch

farm scale. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 112, 146-152. Hutchinson G.L. and Mosier A.R., 1981. Improved soil cover method for field measurement of nitrous oxide fluxes. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 45(2), 311-316. Korkiakoski M., Minkkinen K., Ojanen P., Penttilä T., Koskinen M., Laurila T., and Lohila A., 2017. Methane 1208 exchange at the peatland forest floor – automatic chamber system exposes the dynamics of small 1209 fluxes. Biogeosciences 14, 1947-1967. Kutsch W.L., Staack A., Wötzel J., Middelhoff U., and Kappen L., 2001. Field measurements of root

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Katharina Maria Keiblinger and Rosana Maria Kral

only suffer from environmental challenges such as water scarcity, decreasing soil fertility, and climate change, but it also adds to environmental problems, for example, by inefficiently using fertilizers. This can lead to nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Global inorganic fertilizer consumption has quadrupled in the past 50 years (FAO, 2011). The majority of this, nearly 70%, is lost from the production systems. By 2050, the use of nitrogen fertilizers is expected to double once more, further spurring environmental pollution ( Galloway et al

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Matthew Saunders, Sigrid Dengel, Pasi Kolari, Christine Moureaux, Leonardo Montagnani, Eric Ceschia, Nuria Altimir, Ana López-Ballesteros, Sara Marańon-Jimenez, Manuel Acosta, Katja Klumpp, Bert Gielen, Maarten Op de Beeck, Lukas Hörtnagl, Lutz Merbold, Bruce Osborne, Thomas Grünwald, Dominique Arrouays, Hakima Boukir, Nicolas Saby, Giacomo Nicolini, Dario Papale and Michael Jones

., Magliulo E., Marloie O., Moors E.J., Moureaux C., Olioso A., Osborne B., Sanz M.J., Saunders M., Smith P., Soegaard H., and Wattenbach M., 2010. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 139, 363-383. Chahouki M.A.Z., 2012. Classification and ordination methods as a tool for analysing plant communities. In: Multivariate analysis in Management, Engineering and the Sciences (Eds L. de Freitas, A. de Freitas). InTech, London, United Kingdom, pp. 221-254. http://dx.doi.org/10