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Michael Webster and Rory C. Tarnow-Mordi

Abstract

This article describes methods for decomposing price indexes into contributions from individual commodities, to help understand the influence of each commodity on aggregate price index movements.

Previous authors have addressed the decomposition of bilateral price indexes, which aggregate changes in commodity prices from one time period to another. Our focus is the decomposition of multilateral price indexes, which aggregate commodity prices across more than two time periods or countries at once. Multilateral indexes have historically been used for spatial comparisons, and have recently received attention from statistical agencies looking to produce temporal price indexes from large and high frequency price data sets, such as scanner data. Methods for decomposing these indexes are of practical relevance.

We present decompositions of three multilateral price indexes. We also review methods proposed by other researchers for extending multilateral indexes without revising previously published index levels, and show how to decompose the extended indexes they produce. Finally, we use a data set of seasonal prices and quantities to illustrate how these decomposition methods can be used to understand the influence of individual commodities on multilateral price index movements, and to shed light on the relationships between various multilateral and extension methods.

Open access

Laszló Toth, Balint Horvath, Zsolt Fulop and Csaba Fogarassy

Abstract

The most notable role in the energy usage of rearing-related buildings belongs to barn climate. For animals, one of the most important climate parameter is the temperature of the barn atmosphere. This can be kept in the proper interval by either heating or cooling. Apart from the operation of technological solutions, the need for airing barns must be taken into consideration. This means there are special technical requirements for airing. Also, they can cause significant energy losses. The temperature limit of heating is mainly influenced by the technological temperature related to keeping the animal in question, its acceptable differences, the heat loss of the barn, and the airing requirement. Energy sources applicable to heating can be traditional sources (coal, oil, gas), renewable sources (solar, biomass, wind, water, or geothermal energy), or transformed energy (electricity). As these have specific operation systems, they also mean further challenges in implementing efficient energy usage. The usage of heating energy can either be optimised by the rational usage of the heating system, or machinery explicitly made for reserving energy. Sparing heating energy via recuperative heating exchange may cut costs significantly, which we also proved in this research with actual calculations. However, we have to state that the efficient usage of heat exchangers requires that the internal and external temperatures differ greatly, which has a huge impact on heat recovery performance.

Open access

Eva Grilc

Epidemiološko Spremljanje Črevesnih Nalezljivih Bolezni v Sloveniji Od Leta 1999 Do Leta 2009

Uvod: Epidemiološko spremljanje črevesnih nalezljivih bolezni (ČNB) v Sloveniji temelji na zakonsko obvezni prijavi ČNB, ki jo določata Zakon o nalezljivih boleznih (Ur. l. RS, št. 33/2006, prečiščeno besedilo) in Pravilnik o prijavi nalezljivih bolezni in posebnih ukrepih za njihovo preprečevanje in obvladovanje (Ur. l. RS, št. 16/99).

Metode: Na osnovi prijavljenih primerov smo ocenili epidemiološko situacijo glede ČNB v Sloveniji od leta 1999 do leta 2009.

Rezultati: V Sloveniji smo v letih 1999-2009 zaznali porast incidence vseh ČNB, vključno bakterijske, virusne in neznane etiologije. Incidenca vseh ČNB v letu 2009 je v primerjavi z incidenco leta1999 kljub zmanjšanju incidence bakterijskih ČNB narasla za 61 %. Povečale so se incidence virusnih enteritisov: incidenca rotavirusnih enteritisov za 80 %, incidenca norovirusnih enteritisov za 360 %. V nasprotju z virusnimi enteritisi se je incidenca bakterijskih gastroenterokolitisov (GEK) zmanjšala. Najbolj se je zmanjšala incidenca salmonelnih GEK, za 71 %, E.coli za 53 % in kampilobaktrskih za 32 %. Povprečna incidenca vseh ČNB v letih 1999-2009 je znašala 536/100.000 prebivalcev.

Zaključki: Prijave ČNB zajemajo približno četrtino vseh prijav nalezljivih bolezni in ostajajo pomemben javnozdravstveni problem pri nas.

Open access

S.A. Tabatabae and O. Ansari

References Ansari, O., Choghazardi, H.R., Sharif Zadeh, F. & Nazarli, H. (2012). Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of treated seeds of mountain rye (Secale montanum) as affected by drought stress. Cercet. Agron. Moldova, 2 (150): 43-48. Bolfrey-Arku, G.E-K., Chauhan, B.S. & Johnson, D.E. (2011). Seed germination ecology of itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis). Weed Sci., 59(2):182-187. Bradford, K.J. (1990). A water relation analysis of seed germination rates. Plant Physiol., 94(2): 840

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Thomas C. Uhlendahl

Verbraucherschutz Baden-Württemberg (MLR) die Entwicklung im ländlichen Raum über ein eigenes Programm (ELR) ( MLR 2015 ) sowie über die sogenannten städtebaulichen Erneuerungsprogramme, wie z. B. das Landessanierungsprogramm (LSP). Kommunen versuchen den oben skizzierten Herausforderungen gezielt durch Gemeindeentwicklungskonzepte (GEK) und damit verbundenen Anträgen auf Finanzierung durch das Land zu begegnen. Hierzu erstellen externe Planer zunächst eine Situationsanalyse unter anderem zu Wohnungsbestand und Wohnungsbedarf, Bevölkerungsentwicklung, Einzelhandelsstruktur und

Open access

Michael Chukwuma Obeta and Cletus Famous Nwankwo

groundwater resources, National Mining and Geological Society 2 (1) 9–17. Anyadike, R.N.C. 2002. Climate and vegetation In: Ofomata, G.E.K (ed.). A survey of the Igbo nation. Africana FEP, Onitsha Anyadike, R.N.C. 2009. Statistical methods for the social sciences, Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan Bakalian, A., Jagannathan, N. V. 1991. Institutional aspects of the condominial sewer system. Washington, DC: Infrastructure and Urban Development Department Bakalian, A., Wakeman, W. (eds) 2009. Post-construction support and sustainability in community

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Babatunde Joseph Fagbohun, Oluwaseun Franklin Olabode, Abiodun Olufemi Adebola and Francis Omowonuola Akinluyi

Geology & Engineering Services Ltd. Ofomata G.E.K. (1975) Soil erosion. Nigeria in maps, Eastern States, Ethiope Publishing House, Benin City Nigeria. Ofomata G.E.K. (1981) Actual and potential erosion in Nigeria and measures for control. Soil Science Society of Nigeria Special Monograph, 1, 151–165. Okoro E.I., Egboka B.C.E., Anike O.L., Enekwechi E.K. (2010) Evaluation of Groundwater Potentials in parts of the escarpment areas of southeastern, Nigeria. International Journal Of Geomatics And Geosciences, 1(3): 544-551. Onwuka S.U., Okoye C

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Izabella Mária Bakos and Csaba Bálint

Tanszék. Downloaded: 17.10.09. http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ter%C3%BCleti_egyenl%C5%91tlens%C3%A9gek

Open access

Frances Krsinich

–28 May 2014, Geneva, Switzerland. Available at: http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/stats/documents/ece/ces/ge.22/2014/New_Zealand_-_FEWS.pdf (accessed April 2016). Krsinich, F. 2015. “Price Indexes from Online Data Using the Fixed-Effects Window-Splice Method.” Paper presented at the 14 th meeting of the Ottawa Group, Tokyo, Japan. 20–22 May, 2015. Available at: http://www.stat.go.jp/english/info/meetings/og2015/pdf/t1s2p7_pap.pdf (accessed April 2016). Lamboray, C. and F. Krsinich. 2015. “A Modification of the GEKS Index When Product Turnover is High

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Othman Wan-Norafikah, Wasi Ahmad Nazni, Han Lim Lee, Pawanchee Zainol-Ariffin and Mohd Sofian-Azirun

University Press Inc.:New York; 1995. p. 171-6. 27. Gill SS. Larvicidal activity of synthetic pyrethroids against Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1977; 8:510-4. 28. Lee HL, Nor Asikin, Nazni WA, Sallehuddin S. Temporal variations of insecticide susceptibility status of field-collected Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 1998; 15:43-50. 29. Ping LT, Yatiman R, Gek LP. Susceptibility of adult field strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Singapore to pirimiphos