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Snežana Jovičić, Svetlana Ignjatović and Nada Majkić-Singh

-10. Conroy RM, Pyorala K, Fitzgerald AP, Sans S, Menotti A, De Backer G, et al. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J. 2003; 24 : 987-1003. National Cholesterol Education Program. Risk assessment tool for estimating 10-year risk of developing hard CHD (myocardial infarction and coronary death). http://hin.nhlb.nih.gov/atpiii/calculator.asp?usertype=prof Topol EJ, Lauer MS. The rudimentary phase of personalised medicine: coronary risk scores. Lancet

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Alin Albai, Mirela Frandeș, Ramona Luminița Sandu, Gabriel Spoială, Flavia Hristodorescu, Bogdan Timar and Romulus Timar

, Fitzgerald AP et al. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 24: 987-1003, 2003. 6. D’Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 117: 743-753, 2008. 7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . National diabetes fact sheet: National estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for

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Matjaz Vrtovec, Ajda Anzic, Irena Preloznik Zupan, Katja Zaletel and Ales Blinc

significant number of patients with ET had a high calcium score not predicted by the Framingham risk equation for coronary disease ( Table 6 , Figure 2 ). While a significant correlation between the Framingham CHD risk and the Agatston was found for control subjects (r = 0.577, p < 0.001), no significant correlation was found fort the patients with ET (r = 0.197, p =0.223). Figure 2 Correlation of the Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and coronary calcification (Agatston score). While a significant Pearson correlation between the Framingham CHD risk and

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Vaia D. Raikou

coronary heart disease is the Framingham risk score (FRS). According to the National Institutes of Health, the patients having chronic kidney disease are considered as having a coronary heart disease risk equivalent, meaning that they are primarily patients with a 10-year risk for myocardial infarction or coronary death >20%, despite without known coronary heart disease. [ 8 ] Metabolic acidosis, a common condition and an important manifestation of the late stage of chronic kidney disease, leads to clinically significant consequences, including bone disease disorders

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Sakunee Khankham, Leena Chularojanamontri, Chanisada Wongpraparut, Narumol Silpa-archa, Nuttaporn Janyong and Prin Vathesatogkit

Coronary artery disease (CAD) has become an important cause of death and comorbid disease among the general population. Several assessment tools have been developed to predict the 10-year risk of developing CAD and coronary death. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which was developed in 1998, is probably the most well-known [ 1 ]. The FRS is validated in the U.S. population and performs well when applied to other populations with a similarly high background risk of CAD. However, application of the FRS overestimated the risk of CAD in cohorts in Europe, Asia, and

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Snežana Jovičić

inhibits three steps in the formation of mildly oxidized low density lipoprotein. J Lipid Res 2000; 41: 1481-508. Vega GL, Grundy SM. Hypoalphalipoproteinemia (low high density lipoprotein) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 1996; 7: 209-16. Schaefer EJ, Lamon-Fava S, Ordovas JM, Cohn SD, Schaefer MM, Castelli WP, et al. Factors associated with low and elevated plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I levels in the Framingham Offspring Study. J Lipid Res 1994

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Nevena Eremić and Mirjana Đerić

Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines. JACC 2004; 44 (3): 720-32. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Framingham Heart Study. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/framingham/index.html Sarti C, Gallagher J. The metabolic syndrome. J Diabetes Complicat 2006; 20 (2): 121-32. Assman G, Cullen P, Shulte H. Simple scoring scheme for calculating the risk of acute coronary events based on the 10-year follow-up of the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) study

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Carasca Cosmin, Muresan Vasile Adrian, Tilea Ioan, Magdas Annamaria, Carasca Emilian and Incze Alexandru

References 1. Murabito JM, D’Agostino RB, Silbershatz H, Wilson PWF. Intermittent Claudication - A Risk Profile From The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation, 1997;96:44-49. 2. Khan S, Flather M, Mister R et al. Characteristics and Treatments of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease Referred to UK Vascular Clinics: Results of a Prospective Registry. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 2007;33:4:442–450. 3. Bainton D, Sweetnam P, Baker I, Elwood P. Peripheral vascular disease: consequence for survival and association with

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Daria Pašalić and Natalija Marinković

References 1. Dandona S, Roberts R. The role of genetic risk factors in coronary artery disease. Curr Cardiol Rep 2014;16:479. doi: 10.1007/s11886-014-0479-2 2. Sayols-Baixeras S, Lluís-Ganella C, Lucas G, Elosua R. Pathogenesis of coronary artery disease: focus on genetic risk factors and identification of genetic variants. Appl Clin Genet 2014;7:15-32. doi: 10.2147/TACG.S35301 3. Marinković N, Pašalić D, Potočki S. Polymorphisms of genes i n v o l v e d i n p o l y c y c l i c a r o m a t i c hydrocarbons

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The sex-specific estimation of 10-year cardiovascular risk in individuals without cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has commonly used the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which was developed from a large, population-based prospective cohort in the US representing mainly the white population of European ancestry [ 1 , 2 ]. Other multivariate risk models, including a risk calculator released by the Joint British Societies (JBS) in 2014 [ 3 ], and later versions of Framingham risk model have been developed to predict coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease