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References [1] Mallick PK. (2007). Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design. New York: Taylor and Francis Group, ISBN 978-1-4200-0598-1. [2] Ashir M, Nocke A, Theiss C, Cherif C. (2017). Development of adaptive hinged fiber reinforced plastics based on shape memory alloys. Composite Structures, 170, 243-249. [3] Hossain MM, Elahi AHMF, Afrin S, Mahmud MI, Cho HM, Khan MA. (2017). Thermal Aging of Unsaturated Polyester Composite Reinforced with E-Glass Nonwoven Mat. AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 19, No 1, March 2019, 17, 313-318. [4] Soutis

timber composite beams reinforced with carbon fiber reinforced plastics. In: Wood. Raw material of 21-th century in Architecture and Civil Engineering. Year-book from 6th conference with foreign participation, SR, Smolenitse 6.-7.9.2007. Bratislava ADAPT, 2007. ISBN 978-80-89145-04-1. S. 27-30 Reddy J. N.: Finite Element Method. 2005 Fiorelli J., Alves Dias A.: Theoretical model and experimental analysis of glulam beam reinforced with FRP. Brazil. 2006. Hirasawa H., Oikawa A., Kobayashi A.: Loading tests of glulam beams reinforced by CFRP sheets and plates. Japan. 2006

Experimental investigation on effective detection of delamination in gfrp composites using taguchi method

Detection of delamination defect in glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) by using ultrasonic testing has been a challenging task in industry. The properties of the constituent materials, fiber orientation and the stacking sequence of laminated composite materials could cause high attenuation of ultrasound signals. Ultrasonic testing is based on the interpretation of the reflected ultrasound signals when a transducer imposes ultrasound waves (pulse) to a material. It is difficult to differentiate if the reflected signal is induced from the defects, fiber content or the intermediate layers of GFRP composites. Most of the time, the drastic attenuation of signals could enshroud the modest changes in the reflected signals from defects. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of fiber orientation, thickness and delamination of GFRP composites on the rise time, pulse duration and attenuation ratio of the reflected ultrasound signal. The rise time, pulse duration and attenuation ratio of A-scan data was observed with respect to different positions of damage (delamination), thickness and stacking sequence of the lamina. It is essential to identify the significant factors that contribute to the abnormal characteristics of the reflected signals in which the defect is identified. Moreover, this paper presents the application of Taguchi method for maximizing the detection of defect in GFRP composites influenced by delamination. The optimum combination of the significant contributing factor for the signal’s abnormal characteristics and its effect on damage detection was obtained by using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio. The finding of this study revealed that delamination is the most influential factor on the attenuation ratio.

. Journal of Cleaner Production 2015:91:251–261. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.12.033 [5] Marshall A. Composite Basics. Aircraft Technical Book Co, 2007. [6] Lefeuvre A., Garnier S., Jacquemin L., Pillain B., Sonnemann G. Anticipating in-use stocks of carbon fiber reinforced polymers and related waste flows generated by the commercial aeronautical sector until 2050. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2017:125:264–272. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.06.023 [7] Shuaib N. A., Mativenga P. T., Kazie J., Job S. Resource efficiency and composite waste in UK supply chain

Abstract

The paper concerns an application of lightness factors in comparative analysis of strength properties of basic materials being applied in aeronautical structures – in a historical perspective. The use of lightness factors enables effective estimation how lighter will be the structural elements (of the same strength or stiffness) made from different kind of materials : traditional as well as advanced composites. It is quite easy to find the solution to the inverse problem, i.e. to estimate how differ will be stiffness or strength for the same mass of the structural elements. Very particular application of the lightness factors are noted in engineers calculations of composite gliders wing spars, where they appears as the materials constants and as structure loading factors as well. The paper presents some examples of application of the lightness factors in strength analysis of the composite shells applied in the shear webs of the wing spars, and refers to the design recommendations issued by German aviation authority (LBA).

Abstract

The paper concerns an application of lightness factors in comparative analysis of strength properties of basic materials being applied in aeronautical structures – in a historical perspective. The use of lightness factors enables effective estimation how lighter will be the structural elements (of the same strength or stiffness) made from different kind of materials : traditional as well as advanced composites. It is quite easy to find the solution to the inverse problem, i.e. to estimate how differ will be stiffness or strength for the same mass of the structural elements. Very particular application of the lightness factors are noted in engineers calculations of composite gliders wing spars, where they appears as the materials constants and as structure loading factors as well. The paper presents some examples of application of the lightness factors in strength analysis of the composite shells applied in the shear webs of the wing spars, and refers to the design recommendations issued by German aviation authority (LBA).

References [1] Hashish M., Kent W. A.: Trimming of CFRP aircraft components. In: WJTA-IMCA conference and Expo, 2013. September [2] Timmis A. J., Hodzic A., Koh L., Bonner M., Soutis C., Schäfer A. W., Dray L.: Environmental impact assessment of aviation emission reduction through the implementation of composite materials. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 20/2. (2015) 233–243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-014-0824-0 [3] Karataş M. A., Gökkaya H.: A review on machinability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber

References [1] http://www.tecnaro.de/english/willkommen.htm?section=we , Accessed: 10.03.2015 [2] http://www.eplas.com.au/assets/125/files/msvc.pdf , Accessed: 10.03.2015 [3] Srikanth, P., Engineering Applications of Bioplastics and Biocomposites- An overview, Handbook of Bioplastics and Biocomposites Engineering Applications, Published John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, pp. 1-14, (2011). [4] Nagele, H., Pfitzer, J., Ziegler, L., Inone-Kauffmann, E. R., Eckl, W. and Eisenreich, N.; Lignin Matrix Composites from Natural Resources - ARBOFORM®, Bio-Based Plastics

Engineering Materials, Vol. 7, 2005, pp. 194-209. [8] WANG, J. - GANGARAO, H. - LIANG, R. - ZHOU, D. - LIU, W. – FANG, Y.: Durability of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites under the combined effects of moisture and sustained loads. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 34, No. 21, 2015, pp.1739 - 1754. [9] BENIN, A. - SEMENOV, S. – BOGDANOVA, E.: Influence of long-term exposure in the concrete of FRP rebars on bond characteristics. Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 263, SSP, 2017, pp. 3 - 6.

.M. Taleie (2010). “Experimental Investigation on Relaxation of Fiberreinforced Polymer Composites”, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 29, 2705-2718. 6. I. Sasaki, I. Nishizaki (2012). “Tensile load relaxation of FRP cable system during long-term exposure tests”, Proceedings of 6 th International Conference on FRRP, Composites in Civil Engineering (CICE2012), June 2012. 7. W.-W. Wang, J.-G. Dai, K.A. Harries, Q.-H. Bao (2012). “Prestress losses and Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Posttensioned CFRP Sheets”, Journal of