References Kielar M, Noszczyk M : Teleangiektazje. W Chirurgia tętnic i żył. (red.) W. Noszczyk. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 2007. Nael R, Rathbun S : Treatment of varicose veins. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2009; 11(2): 91-103. Sadick NS : Electro-Optical Synergy in Aesthetic Medicine: Novel Technology, Multiple Applications. Cosmetic Dermatology 2005; 18: 201-06. Waldman A, Kreindle M : New Technology in Aesthetic Medicine: ELOS
Maciej Kielar, Maria Noszczyk, Jacek Waligóra, Andrzej Lewczuk and Wojciech Tur
S. Mangan and K. Collins
References Advanced Satellite Consulting Ltd. (2015). The World Football Elo Rating System. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://www.eloratings.net/. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall, Inc.. Bernard, A. B., & Busse, M. R. (2004). Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Resources and Medal Totals. Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(1), 413-417. http://doi.org/10.1162/003465304774201824 Blake, C., Murphy, J. C., Gissane, C
K. Cieslak, S. Gulkowski and J. Olchowik
This work presents an analysis of the influence of SiO2 dielectric coverage of a Si substrate on the solar-cell efficiency of Si thin layers obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). The layers were obtained by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). All experiments were carried out under the following conditions: initial temperature of growth: 1193 K; temperature difference ΔT = 60 K; ambient gas: Ar; metallic solvent: Sn+Al; cooling rates: 0.5 K/min and 1 K/min. To compare the influence of the interior reflectivity of photons, we used two types of dielectric masks in a shape of a grid etched in SiO2 along the 〈110〉 and 〈112〉 directions on a p+ boron-doped (111) silicon substrate, where silicon dioxide covered 70 % and 80 % of the silicon surface, respectively. The results obtained in this work depict the correlation between the interior efficiency and percentage of SiO2 coverage of the substrate of the ELO solar cells.
S. Gulkowski, J. Olchowik, K. Cieslak and P. Moskvin
Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELO) is a method of epitaxial growth on a partially masked substrate. It can be a promising method for photovoltaic applications due to a possibility of producing thin and high quality silicon substrates. Since the mask prevents propagation of the substrate dislocations to the laterally overgrown parts of the ELO layer they are characterized by a lower dislocation density than the substrate. It means that it is possible to fabricate good quality solar cells on a poor quality Si substrate. The main goal of the research is to obtain a higher growth rate in the lateral direction than in the direction normal to the substrate. The epilayer growth kinetics depends on many technological factors, basically the growth temperature, the cooling rate, the solvent and the mask filling factor. For this reason the best way to achieve the goal is a computational analysis of the epitaxial layer growth process. This work presents a two-dimensional computational study of such a process of growth for different technological conditions. The computational model is based on the assumption of pure diffusion control growth.
Zoltán Vas, Csaba Privigyei, Viola Judit Prohászka, Tibor Csörgő and Lajos Rózsa
A recently published checklist of Hungarian louse fauna (Insecta: Phthiraptera) listed 279 species and subspecies which have been recorded in Hungary. According to that checklist several louse species still await detection in Hungary, and many of the previously reported louse species have not been found on all expected host species yet. Our faunistical survey on avian lice started in 2005 at Ócsa Bird Ringing Station, resulting hundreds of ectoparasite samples collected from over 70 bird species. Additionally, our louse collection has grown by collecting samples in other research projects focusing on various bird species, and by sampling cadavers before taxidermy in the Bird Collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. As the results of a preliminary exploration of this collection, we list 20 louse species which are new to the Hungarian fauna, as well as the first Hungarian records of 17 host-parasite associations. We also found 3 louse-bird association records new for the World fauna.
- Zoltán Igmándy (1925-2000), prominent Hungarian mycologist, worked as professor of forest protection at the University of West-Hungary Sopron. His main research area was the investigation of wood-inhabiting poroid fungi of Hungary, their occurrence and importance in forest pathology and wood protection. During his 40 years of scientific activity Igmándy created a rich fungal collection (herbarium Z. Igmándy) which includes the complete polypore mycota known to occur in Hungary until 1990. The paper provides a brief compendium of the collection, a list of species characterised by the number of specimens, number of sampling locations and enumeration of the hosts and substrata of the specimens.
Levente Szőcs, George Melika, Csaba Thuróczy and György Csóka
Between 2011 and 2014, 1,154 mines of Phyllonorycter comparella (Duponchel) were collected at 12 locations in Hungary and were put into single-mine rearing containers. A total of 574 parasitoid specimens belonging to 29 parasitoid species (26 Chalcididae, 2 Encyrtidae and 1 Braconidae) emerged. Of these species, 13 have not yet been mentioned in either international or in Hungarian literature as a parasitoid of the P. comparella. The species assemblages of the parasitoid complexes varied greatly among the sample sites. The primary dominant species of the total samples was found to be Sympiesis sericeicornis (Nees), an abundant idiobiont solitary ectoparasitoid. Among the species reared, we have found specialist parasitoids such as Achrysocharoides scaposa (Erdős) and even species never recorded from Populus (Zagrammosoma variegatum (Masi)) according to the Universal Chalcidoidea Database.
Károly Rédei, Zsolt Keserű, Imre Csiha, János Rásó, Ágnes Kamandiné Végh and Borbála Antal
In Hungary black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is considered as an important exotic stand-forming tree species growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions for forest management. Due to climate change effects its importance is increasing in many other countries, too. As a result of a selection programme new black locust clones were tested in clone trials. Juvenile growth and the morphological as well as phenological traits of four micropropagated black locust clones were evaluated in central Hungary under dry site conditions. Significant differences (P<5%) were found for DBH and field survival rate values. At age of 7 the clone R.p. ‘Bácska’ (’KH 56A 2/5’) appears to be especially promising for mass propagation. Tissue culture can be considered as a suitable tool for propagating superior individuals and offers new prospects for the rapid cloning of selected genotypes used for plantation forestry.
Anita Barth, Ildikó Nagy and János Kiss
támogatásának vizsgálata. [Thesis.] Budapest: ELTE-BGGYK. Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57 (6), 1069-1081. Thomas, K. W., & Kilmann, R. H. (1974). Thomas-Kilmann conflict mode instrument. New York: Xicom. Tóth P. P. (1991). Kreativitás és stressz a kisebbségben élő magyarság körében. Regio, 2 (2), 156-166.
Tamás Hammer, András Liker and István Szentirmai
We investigated habitat preference of Common Sandpipers as part of a monitoring program in the Őrség National Park, Hungary. Field observations were conducted during the summers between 2008 and 2012 along a 47-km long section of the River Rába. During the observations we recorded the number and location of birds on the river bank. We divided the studied area into 1 km long sections and measured the proportion of the visually distinguishable habitat types (water, low gravel and sand bank, vegetation and degraded area) from a digitalized map. Furthermore, we recorded the number of the low banks and the number of bends of the river within each section, as well as the sections’ distance from the closest hydroelectric power plants and human settlements. In 2012 we also performed a detailed habitat mapping, recording the proportion of the vegetation types along the river bank and the number of fishing spots, embankment strengthenings and gravel banks. We tested the correlations between these habitat variables and number of birds present in the river sections. Our results show that Common Sandpipers were observed more frequently in locations which have (1) larger number and area of low gravel and sand banks, (2) less dense vegetation, and (3) lower proportion of degraded habitats. These findings can be taken into account in the conservation management of River Rába