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H. Markiewicz, W. Krumrych and M. Gehrke

References Alluwaimi AM (2004) The cytokines of bovine mammary gland: prospects for diagnosis and therapy. Res Vet Sci 77: 211-222. Anderson KL, Kindahl H, Smith AR, Davis LE, Gustafsson BK (1986) Endotoxin-induced bovine mastitis: arachidonic acid metabolites in milk and plasma and effect of flunixin meglumine. Am J Vet Res 47: 1373-1377. Burvenich Ch, Van Merris V, Mehrzad J, Diez-Fraile A, Duchateau L (2003) Severity of E. coli mastitis is mainly determined by cow factors. Vet Rec 34: 521

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Jana Kaduková, Oksana Velgosová, Anna Mražíková, Renáta Marcinčáková and Eva Tkáčová

References BARRENA, R., CASALS, E., COLÓN, J., FONT, X., SÁNCHEZ, A., PUNTES, V.: Evaluation of the ecotoxicity of model nanoparticles. Chemosphere, 75, 2009, 850–857. CHOI, O., DENG, K.K., KIM, N-J., ROSS, L., SURAMPALLI, R.Y., HU, Z.: The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles, silver ions and silver chloride colloids on microbial growth. Water Res., 42, 2008, 3066-3074. EL-TEMSAH, Y.S., JONER, E.J.: Impact of Fe and Ag nanoparticles on seed germination and differences in bioavailability during exposure in aqueous suspension and soil

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Yakup Can Sancak, Hakan Sancak and Ozgur Isleyici

References 1. Akkaya L., Alisarli M., Kara R., Telli R.: The Prevalance of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and cheeses sold in Afyonkarahisar province, Turkey. YYU Vet Fak Derg 2007, 18, 1-5. 2. Aksu H., Arun O.O., Aydın A., Ugur M.: The presence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in various foodstuffs of animal origin. Pendik Vet Mik Derg 1999, 30, 77-81. 3. Alisarli M., Akman H.N.: Investigation of Escherichia coli O157 in retail minced meat. YYU Vet Fak Derg 2004, 15, 65-69. 4. The Community Summary

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Joanna Kołsut, Paulina Borówka, Błażej Marciniak, Ewelina Wójcik, Arkadiusz Wojtasik, Dominik Strapagiel and Jarosław Dastych

-associated genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Avian Dis 2005, 49, 269–273. 5. Ge X.Z., Jiang J., Pan Z., Hu L., Wang S., Wang H., Fan H.: Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140) shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1: K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains. PloS One 2014, 9, e112048. 6. Giufré M., Accogli M., Graziani C., Busani L., Cerquetti M.: Whole-genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains sharing the same

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Alise Jakovele, Vizma Nikolajeva, Jūlija Trofimova and Natalja Ivanova

between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans. J. Clin. Microbiol ., 37 (3), 497–503. Brooks, J. T., Sowers, E. G., Wells, J. G., Greene, K. D., Griffin, P. M., Hoekstra, R. M., Caprioli, A., Morabito, S., Brugere, H., Oswald, E. (2005). Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli : Emerging issues on virulence and modes of transmission. Vet. Res ., 36 (3), 289–311. Catford, A., Kouamé, V., Martinez-Perez, A., Gill, A., Buenaventura, E., Couture, H., Farber, J. M. (2014). Risk profile on non-O157 verotoxin

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P. Brodzki, M. Bochniarz, A. Brodzki, Z. Wrona and W. Wawron

Sci 85: 2223-2236. LeBlanc SJ, Osawa T, Dubuc J (2011) Reproductive tract defense and disease in postpartum dairy cows. Theriogenology 76: 1610-1618. Malinowski E, Lassa H, Markiewicz H, Kaptur M, Nadolny M, Niewitecki W, Ziętara J (2011) Sensitivity to antibiotics of Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli from the uteri of cows with metritis/endometritis. Vet J 187: 234 - 238. McDougall S, Hussein H, Aberdein D, Buckle K, Roche J, Burke C, Mitchell M, Meier S (2011) Relationships between cytology, bacteriology

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T. Stenzel, A. Bancerz-Kisiel, B. Tykałowski, M. Śmiałek, D. Pestka and A. Koncicki

M, Nolan D, Rand K, Cook RL, Johnson J, Morris JG Jr, Salemi M (2013) Molecular epidemiology of community-associated Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomic era: a cross-sectional study. Sci Rep 3: 1902. Radimersky T, Frolkova P, Janoszowska D, Dolejska M, Svec P, Roubalova E, Cikova P, Cizek A, Literak I (2010) Antibiotic resistance in faecal bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp.) in feral pigeons. J Appl Microbiol 109: 1687-1695. Raue R, Schmidt V, Freick M, Reinhardt B, Johne R, Kamphausen L, Kaleta EF

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Valentina Urumova

, Rodrigues J, Torres C: Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing isolates in faecal samples in broilers. Vet Microbiol 2009, 138: 339-363. 5. Girlich D, Poirel L, Carattoli A, Kemf I, Lartigue M, Bertini A, Nordmann P:. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-1 in Escherichia coli isolates from healthy poultry in France. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007, 73: 4681-4685. 6. EMEA: Antibiotic resistance in the European Union associated with therapeutic use of veterinary medicines. 1999. 7. Batchelor M Threlfall EJ, Liebana E: Cephalosporin resistance

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Maria Rodica Gurău, Hasan Majid Hameed, Mihaela Cristiana Popp, Marius Valer Campeanu and Doina Daneș

References Awwad, E., K. Adwan, M. Farraj, T. Essawi, I. Rumi, A. Manasra, S. Baraitareanu, M. R. Gurau and D. Danes. 2015. Cell Envelope Virulence Genes among Field Strains of Brucella melitensis Isolated in West Bank Part of Palestine. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia. 6: 281-286. Akram N., H. Mojtaba, A. Azam, A. Masoud and H. Najmeh 2017. ʺDistribution of pathogenicity island markers and virulence factors in new phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolatesʺ. Folia Microbiologica, 63

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Ali K. Alzahrani, Mostafa M. Farag, Said H. Abbadi, Mohamed M. Hassan, Ahmed Gaber and Ahmed S. Abdel-Moneim

, 20 ]. This may result in a delay in the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy [ 17 ]. Molecular detection of ESBL genes by PCR is an attractive alternative [ 19 - 21 ]. In the current study, we intended to conduct antibiotic susceptibility screening of E. coli and K. pneumoniae from inpatients and detect the common ESBL genes. Meanwhile, we intended to genotype the ESBL positive bacteria with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and methods Bacterial culture and identification Our study protocol was