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Gert Pickel and Cemal Öztürk

provokes two questions: Is it empirically true that Islamophobia is more widespread in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe? And if yes, how can we explain this puzzling pattern? We hypothesize that Islamophobia is more prevalent in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe and we suppose that this empirical pattern is caused by a mixture of more pronounced ethnocentric sentiments of nationalism and less contacts with Muslims . This assumption leads us to the contact hypothesis and alternative social– psychological explanations (e.g., Social Identity Theory

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Jürgen Friedrichs, Felix Leßke and Vera Schwarzenberg

– Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung Dortmund Ellison, C. G.; Shin, H.; Leal, D. L. (2011): The contact hypothesis and attitudes toward Latinos in the United States. In: Social Science Quarterly 92, 4, 938-958. 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2011.00798.x Ellison C. G. Shin H. Leal D. L. 2011 The contact hypothesis and attitudes toward Latinos in the United States Social Science Quarterly 2 4 938 958 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2011.00798.x Farley, R.; Schuman, H.; Bianchi, S.; Colasanto, D.; Hatchett, S. (1978): "Chocolate City, Vanilla

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Małgorzata Wójcik and Katarzyna Popiołek

of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 18(5), 403-419. Brewer, M.B.(1979). Intergroup Bias in the minimal group situation. A cognitive-motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 307-324. Brewer, M.B., & Miller, N. (1984). Beyond the contact hypothesis: Theoretical perspectives on desegregation. In M.B. Brewer (Eds.), Groups in Contact: The Psychology of Desegregation (281-302). Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Bruner, J. S. (1957). On perceptual readiness. Psychological Review, 64, 123

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Biodiversity Research and Conservation

The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University

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Antti O. Tanskanen

:551-77. Jamison CS, Cornell LL, Jamison PL, Nakazato H. 2002. Are all grandmothers equal? A review and a preliminary test of the “grandmother hypothesis” in Tokugawa Japan. Am J Phys Anthropol 119:67−76. Johnson J editor. 2008. Millennium Third Survey Follow-up: A guide to the school assessment datasets. 1st edition. London: Centre for Longitudinal Studies. Johow J, Fox M, Knapp LA, Voland E. 2011. The presence of a paternal grandmother lengthens interbirth interval following the birth of a granddaughter in Krummhorn (18th and 19th centuries

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Marek Kowalik, Mirosław Rucki, Piotr Paszta and Rafał Gołębski

. (2014). Plasticity of Pressure-Sensitive Materials. Springer. [12] Radzevich, S.P. (2014). Generation of Surfaces: Kinematic Geometry of Surface Machining. CRC Press. [13] Kukielka, L. (2003). Numerical Modeling: The Contact Problem of Movable Elasto/visco-plastic Body . WIT Press, 93-104. [14] Kukielka, L. (2001). Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of non-linear deformation of the asperity in the burnishing cold rolling operation. In Computational Methods in Contact Mechanics V. WIT Press, 317-326. [15] Kukielka, L

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Klamerus-Iwan Anna and Kraj Wojciech

Abstract

Interception is the amount of water held on the canopy at the end of a rainfall event. Rainfall interception and contact angle of raindrops on the surface of plants has a significant meaning in ecohydrology. Leaves are the plant organs in which during development, changes in the composition of the epicuticular wax can be observed. These differences can be explained by phenological changes.

In the present study, there was a hypothesis that seasonal phenological changes of leaf surface can highly affect the amount of rainwater retained by plants (interception) and the angle of contact between the droplets and leaf’s surface.

This above-mentioned hypothesis was assessed based on the designed measurement series, combining:

1) direct leaves spraying in various stages of growth with water at a constant temperature

2) images obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyse changes in the structure of the epicuticular wax

3) photographic methods, images acquired in the light box

4) measurement and analysis of the angle of contact by using simulated raindrops.

The leaves of Fagus sylvatica L. were analysed. Samples were taken in the Niepołomice Forest District (southern Poland) from well-developed crown trees.

The result of the experiments conducted makes a database of changes in wettability of raindrops on beech leaves throughout the whole vegetative season. The internal slope of drops ranged from 110°–150° in April up to 20°–40° at the beginning of November.

Based on the obtained results, we can classify the degrees of leaf wettability and interception under the influence of morphological changes occurring during the vegetative season.

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Cornel Ilinca, Răzvan Vârvorea and Adrian Popovici

Abstract

The seismic analysis of a buttress dam with 73.50 m height is performed by the spectral analysis method and the direct time integration method. An accelerogram with 0.1g maximum acceleration was applied horizontally, in the upstream - downstream direction, at the bottom of the dam-foundation finite element mesh. The hydrodynamic effect of the reservoir was considered according to the added mass procedure (Westergaard relation). ABAQUS software was used to make the analyses. The same type of finite element C3D20R was used for the mesh of the dam body and of the foundation. The comparison of the results is made on the displacements, the stress state and the sliding stability on the dam-foundation contact in the full reservoir hypothesis. The comprehensive analysis concluded that both methods had provided close results for the considered case study. The spectral analysis method revealed itself to be more conservative compared to the direct time integration method.