References 1. Parida, K.M ., Sahu, S., Reddy, K.H. & Sahoo, P.C. (2011). A Kinetic, Thermodynamic, and Mechanistic Approach toward Adsorption of Methylene Blue over Water-Washed Manganese Nodule Leached Residues. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50, 843-848.DOI: 10.1021/ie101866a. 2. Munagapati, V.S. & Kim, D.S. (2017). Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics studies for congo red adsorption using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite. Ecotox Environ Safe. 141, 226-234. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017
Zhao Zhang, Yanhui Li, Qiuju Du and Qi Li
Majid Muneer, Muhammad Saeed, Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti, Atta-ul Haq, Muhammad Kaleem Khosa, Muhammad Asghar Jamal and Saddaqat Ali
bacteria from a wastewater treatment plant. World J. Microb. Biotech ., 20 (6), 545–550. 4. Ollis, D. F., Pelizzetti, E., & Serpone, N. (1991). Photocatalyzed destruction of water contaminants. Environ. Sci. Technol ., 25 (9), 1522–1529. 5. Ma, H., Wang, M., Yang, R., Wang, W., Zhao, J., Shen, Z., & Yao, S. (2007). Radiation degradation of Congo Red in aqueous solution. Chemosphere , 68 , 1098–1104. 6. Camp, R., & Sturrock, P. E. (1990). The identification of the derivatives of C.I. Reactive Blue 19 in textile wastewater. Water Res ., 24 (10
Ng Boon Swan and Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini
malachite green from aqueous solution using magnetic β-cyclodextrin-graphene oxide nanocomposites as adsorbents. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp. 2015;466:166-173. DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.11.021.  Naseem K, Farooqi ZH, Begum R, Irfan A. Removal of congo red dye from aqueous medium by its catalytic reduction using sodium borohydride in the presence of various inorganic nano-catalysts: A review. J Clean Prod. 2018:187:296-307. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.209.  Alver E, Bulut M, Metin AU, Çiftçi H. One step effective removal of congo red in
Alica Bartošová, Lenka Blinová, Maroš Sirotiak and Anna Michalíková
methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: A review, J. Hazard. Mater. , 177 (1), pp. 70–80. 4. M. ZUBAIR, N. JARRAH, M. S. MANZAR, M. Al-HARTHI, M. DAUD, N. D. MU’AZU, S. HALADU. 2017. Adsorption of eriochrome black T from aqueous phase on MgAl-, CoAl- and NiFe-calcined layered double hydroxides: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. J. Mol. Liq. , Vol. 230 , No. January, pp. 344–352. 5. D. PATHANIA, A. SHARMA, Z. M. SIDDIQI. 2016. Removal of congo red dye from aqueous system using Phoenix dactylifera seeds. J. Mol. Liq. , Vol. 219 , pp. 359
Fabian Nde Fon, Ignatius Verla Nsahlai, Peter Frank Scogings and Nasreldin Abdelrahim Dafaalla Basha
fibrolytic enzymes to improve feed utilization by ruminants. J. Anim Sci., 81: 37-47. Beguin P. (1983). Detection of cellulase activity in polyacrylamide gels using congo red-stained agar replicas. Anal. Biochem., 131: 333-336. Bhat M.K. (2000). Cellulases and related enzymes in biotechnology. Biotechnol. Adv., 18: 355-383. Blum H., Beier H., Gross H.J. (1987). Improved silver staining of plant-proteins, RNAand DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Electrophoresis, 8: 93-99. Bronnenmeier K., Kundt K., Riedel K., Schwarz
Stylianos Dalampiras, Dimitrios Andreadis, Ioannis Kostopoulos, Florentia Stylianou, Ioannis Papadiochos and Athanasios Poulopoulos
Background: Deposition of amyloid in oral mucosa may be related to systemic disorders, including immune-related diseases and malignancies.
Clinical Presentation: We describe a case of 76-year-old patient with excessive, painless, multi-nodular tongue enlargement, and petechiae on the vermilion border and perioral skin that appeared 2 months ago. The biopsy detected subepithelial, Congo’s Red positive amyloid depositions. Consequent laboratory investigation and bone marrow biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma stage 2 (International Prognostic Index - IPI).
Conclusion: Multi-nodular excessive tongue enlargement could be of high significance as initial sign of undiagnosed, underlying systemic disease including severe malignancy like multiple myeloma.
Čabarkapa Ivana, Škrinjar Marija, Lević Jovanka, Kokić Bojana, Blagojev Nevena, Milanov Dubravka and Suvajdžić Ljiljana
Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is an important alimentary pathogen that recently gained special attention due to the ability of a large number of strains to form biofilms. Qualitative testing of biofilm forming ability was performed by observing the morphotype of the colonies on Congo Red agar and by conducting the pellicle test, while quantitative testing was carried out by Cristal violet assay on microtiter plates. A total of 14 isolates of S. Enteritidis were tested for biofilm forming ability, while Salmonella Enteritidis ATTC 13076 was used as the reference strain. Based on the morphotype of colonies cultivated on Congo Red agar at 25°C incubation temperature, among tested isolates three morphotypes were detected – red, dry and rough (rdar), brown, dry and rough (bdar) and smooth and white (saw). Half of the tested isolates demonstrated rdar morphotype. All isolates that showed a specific morphotype at this incubation temperature also formed the corresponding type of pellicle at the air-liquid interface. Additionally, comparing OD (optical density) values obtained by crystal violet test between groups of isolates that represent one of the three detected morphotypes (rdar, bdar and saw), statistically significant differences were detected. Based on OD values obtained by crystal violet test at both applied incubation temperatures, isolates were classified into three categories, regarding their ability to form biofilms: strong, moderate and weak biofilm producers. By comparing the amounts of the biofilms formed after 48h at 25°C and 37°C, statistically significant differences were noted (P<0.05). In this research we presented micrographs and a reconstruction of three-dimensional projections of biofilm developing phases of rdar morphotype isolates, which were obtained using confocal laser scanning microscopy.
Krystyna Bratek, Wiesław Bratek and Marek Kułażyński
The utilization of sorbents obtained from miscanthus using steam as the activation agent for wastewaters treatment
The possibility of obtaining sorbents with a good sorption capacity from miscanthus has been investigated. The chars and the activation products were obtained from the miscanthus in a rotary furnace. The activation process of miscanthus was carried out by water vapour at 700-800°C and at the activation time of 30-90 min. We found that the optimum conditions for the activation process were: the activation temperature of 750°C (activation time of 60 and 90 min) and 800°C (activation time of 45 or 60 min). For these conditions the sorbents with the best sorption capacity for p-chlorophenol, toluene, methylene blue and Congo red were obtained.
Milan Aničić, Vladimir Kukolj and Darko Marinković
Equine glanders is a severe bacterial disease known since ancient times. Although eradicated in the most part of the world it is now considered re-emerging. Considering very scarce literature data, we used from formalin fixed collection material: nasal septum, lung and skin specimens from naturally infected horses. Tissues were grossly examined and photographed. Tissue samples, after standard processing, were stained with HE, Congo red and Groccot and microscopically examined. Gross changes include nodules and ulcers in the nasal mucosa with granulation and scarring, pyogranulomas in the lung tissue and nodules and ulcers of the skin. Microscopically marked inflammation of affected tissues with neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration and fibrous tissue proliferation were seen. As a potent zoonotic agent it has been already used as a biological weapon in the past.
Mei Li, Mei Wang, Shouhai Li, Kun Huang, Wei Mao and Jianling Xia
Calcium and zinc salts of dimer fatty acids (DFA-Ca and DFA-Zn) were synthesized using direct neutralization and metathesis technologies, respectively. The adduct of maleic anhydride and methyl eleostearate (MAME) was also converted to the corresponding zinc soap (C22TA-Zn) and calcium soap (C22TA-Ca) by the two different synthetic routes. Mixed Ca/Zn salts between DFA-Ca and DFA-Zn, and between C22TA-Zn and C22TA-Ca were used as thermal stabilizers for poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The PVC thermal stability was determined using Congo red test, discoloration test, torque rheological analysis and TGA. Dynamic mechanical properties were also tested. Results indicated that the DFA-Ca/DFA-Zn thermal stabilizer from direct neutralization technology was found to be superior to that of the metathesis product. The C22TA-Ca/C22TA-Zn thermal stabilizer from direct neutralization method had overall superior thermal stability, and displayed modulus and glass transition comparable to that of metathesis product. Direct neutralization method was more excellent and convenient than metathesis technology.