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Andreas Polk and Andreja Primec

References Belleflamme, P., & Peitz, M. (2015). Industrial organization: Markets and strategies (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bishop, S., & Walker, M. (2010). The economics of EC competition law. London: Sweet & Maxwell. Blanco, L.O., & Jörgens, K. (2013). The role of national judicial authorities. In L. O. Blanco (Ed), EU Competition procedures (3rd ed.) (p. 93). Oxford: University Press. BMWi (2016a). Übersicht über die bisherigen Anträge auf Ministererlaubnis nach § 24 Abs

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Paweł Swianiewicz and Julita Łukomska

References Aalers, M & Elhorst, JP 2005, ‘Tax mimicking and yardstick competition among local governments in Netherlands’, International Tax and Public Finance , vol. 12(4), pp. 495–513. Baur, M 2010, ‘Harmonising Tax Base: Pros and Cons’. Paper presented at the OECD Conference on Tax Competition Between Sub-Central Governments , Bern 31.05-01.06.2010. Blöchliger, H 2013, Fiscal federalism 2014: making decentralization work , Paris: OECD. Blöchliger, H & Pinero-Campos, J 2011, ‘Tax Competition Between Sub-Central Governments’, OECD

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Luis Palma Martos and José Luis García Hidalgo

References Budzinski, O., 2009. “An International Multilevel Competition Policy System”. International Economics and Economic Policy. 6, pp. 367-389. Budzinski, O., 2012. “International Antitrust Institutions”, Ilmenau Economics Discussion Paper, Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Economics, nº72. Circuit Court of Appeals, 1945. United States v. Aluminum Co. of America et al. No. 144. Available at, consulted on 11.12.2013. Clark J. L

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Emanuel Hurych

Self-competition versus Internal Competition

This paper attempts to draw attention to the problem of self-competition as a very specific and controversial type of competition and gives a proposal for division between self-competition and internal competition, both of them as special different forms of competition within one individual person.

This basis of the problem is inspired by the article On Competing Against Oneself (Howe, 2008) published in Sport, Ethics and Philosophy. Howe is engaged in the motive of competition which is usually called "self competition". She disagrees with Krein (2007) who argues that self-competition cannot be spoken about within adventure therapy because of the absence of competitors and the lack of repeatable measure of performance.

As a consequence of this question the contribution is focused on the relation between self-competition and individual challenge on the one hand and the phenomenon of experience on the other hand. The term of "internal competition" is suggested here and the differences between self-competition and internal competition are explained. The mentioned relation is understood as an equivalence which is accompanied by some concrete examples from the area of movement activities.

The aim of the essay is to show the complexity of the relationship between experience and competition motives. The other goal is to introduce the term of internal competition, as the phenomenon closely connected with experience. At least in some cases internal competition can be considered as the essential part of experience. While self-competition is very closely connected with the result of the activity and level of the performance, internal competition is far more focused on the process and depth of the experience.

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Sameer Mathur and Prem Prakash Dewani

?. Journal of Marketing Research, 30(2), p.158. Hauser, J. and Wernerfelt, B. (1990). An Evaluation Cost Model of Consideration Sets. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(4), p.393. Jaskold Gabszewicz, J. and Thisse, J. (1979). Price competition, quality and income disparities. Journal of Economic Theory, 20(3), pp.340-359. Kalyanaram, G. and Urban, G. (1992). Dynamic Effects of the Order of Entry on Market Share, Trial Penetration, and Repeat Purchases for Frequently Purchased Consumer Goods. Marketing Science, 11(3), pp.235

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Iulia Monica Dumitrescu, Nuno Crespo and Nadia Simões

References Berthelon M., Freund C. (2008) On the conservation of distance in international trade, Journal of International Economics, 75(2), 310-320 Crespo N., Fontoura M. (2007) Determinant Factors of FDI Spillovers - What Do We Really Know?, World Development, 35(3), 410-425 Crespo N., Simoes N. (2012) Competition in Tourism Arrivals – A Multidimensional Index of Geographical Structural Similarity, Tourism Analysis 13-5(1), 4-30 Head K., Mayer T. (2013) What separates us?, Sources of resistance to globalization, Canadian Journal of

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Zeina Alsharkas

References Acemoglu, D., Griffith, R., Aghion, P., Zilibotti, F. (2010), Vertical integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence, Journal of the European Economic Association, 8 (5), pp. 989-1033. Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B. (1987), Innovation, Market Structure, and Firm Size. The Review of Economics and Statistics, pp. 567-574. Aghion, P., Dewatripont, M., Rey, P. (1999), Competition, Financial Discipline and Growth, Review of Economic Studies, pp. 825-852. Aghion, P., Bloom, N., Blundell, R

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Martin Sonntag and Hanns-Martin Teichert

References [1] J. Bang-Jensen and G. Gutin, Digraphs: Theory, Algorithms and Applications (Springer, London, 2001). [2] J.E. Cohen, Interval graphs and food webs: a finding and a problem (Rand Corporation Document 17696-PR, Santa Monica, CA, 1968). [3] W. Imrich and S. Klavžar, Product Graphs (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2000). [4] S.R. Kim, The competition number and its variants , in: Quo vadis, graph theory?, J. Gimbel, J.W. Kennedy and L.V. Quintas (Eds.), Ann. Discrete Math. 55 (1993) 313–326. doi:10.1016/s0167

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Aurora Elena Dina

References Badea, D. (2008). Romanian insurance market - benefits and costs after EU accession. International Conference of ASECU, Bucharest. Badea, D., Novac L.E. (2008). Romanian Insurance Market Facing Globalization Process, Theoretical and Applied Economics, 62 - 68. Buşu, M. (2012). An economic analysis on the degree of market concentration: Competition Indicators. Proceedings of the 6th International Management Conference “Approaches in organizational Management”, Bucharest, 529

Open access

Lucie Sedmihradská

References ALLERS, M. A., ELHORST, J. P. (2005). Tax Mimicking and Yardstick Competition among Local Governments in the Netherlands. International Tax & Public Finance . 12 (4). pp 493-513. DOI: 10.1007/s10797-005-1500-x. BESLEY, T., CASE, A. (1995) Incumbent behaviour: Vote-seeking, tax-setting, and yardstick competition. American Economic Review . 85(1). pp. 25-45. BIRD, R. M. 1993. Threading the Fiscal Labyrinth: Some Issues in Fiscal Decentralization. National Tax Journal . 46(2). pp. 207