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The French Consulate in Salonica in the 19th Century
the consular functions at the outset into three main categories: notarial duties, tasks linked with trade and navigation, and state services including police and judiciary functions. Desmond Christopher Martin Platt: »The Role of the British Consular Service in Overseas Trade, 1825–1914«, in: The Economic History Review 15 (1963), p. 494–512, at p. 494–495. In the course of time, however, the organization and attributions of consulates were repeatedly readjusted by the French central government, reaching their »climax« in the 19th century, according to Jörg Ulbert
not yet been published, but some of the results of the research can be found in Alison Frank: »The Children of the Desert and the Laws of the Sea. Austria, Great Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and the Mediterranean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century«, in: The American Historical Review 117 (2012), pp. 410–444. I was curious about the consuls’ credibility vis à vis the Lloyd, a private but publicly subsidized shipping company that was among the largest and most powerful corporations in the Habsburg monarchy. Could I learn more about the Lloyd by looking closely at
Moldavia constituted a barrier to expansion into the Balkans. Annexation of the eastern part in 1812 was the first step toward the fulfillment of Russia’s geopolitical strategy – to connect the Orthodox Balkans to Russia and to gain direct access to the Mediterranean Sea. However, Romania considers present-day Moldova to be a lost Romanian territory and Moldovans part of the Romanian nation. This is despite the fact that, due to different developments in the period of strong Soviet propaganda, a section of Moldovans even prefers the new Moldovan identity.
member of the Crimean Tatar National Movement The Crimean Tatar National Movement for the return to Crimea has been established in the 1960s in the places of the Crimean Tatars’ exile in Central Asia. ( Krymskotatarskoe natsional’noe dvidzenie ) Abdureshit Dzhepparov at the end of 2015. This group appeared as a reaction to the facts of the kidnapping of the Crimean Tatars, which began to take place in the annexed Crimea ( Shakirov 2014 ). The task of the contact group was to coordinate the efforts of the families of the victims, law enforcement agencies, as well as
, Said 1978 ), and one might argue that terror attacks consolidate such feelings toward Muslims ( Cinnirella 2012 ). The impact of fear occupies a central position in the Integrated Threat Theory ( Gonzalez et al. 2008 ; Jonas and Fritsche 2013 ; McLaren 2003 ; Stephan and Stephan 1996 ; Quillian 1995 ). In a nutshell, the theory states that in-groups’ perceived realistic and symbolic threats are a powerful source of prejudice toward out-groups (Stephan and Stephan 1996 ). When Victor Orbán warned his compatriots that Muslims pose a danger for their employments