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The aim of the article is to examine and evaluate the social ethics aspects of the pamphlet Pro vindiciis contra tyrannos oratio by the scholar and rector of Prague University Jan Jesenský - Jessenius (1566-1621); first published in Frankfurt in 1614 and for the second time in Prague in 1620 during the Czech Estate Revolt. Therefore, the broader intellectual context of the time is introduced, specifically the conflict between two theories of ruling power correlating with that between the ruler and the Estates after the ideas of the Protestant reformation started to spread. The first theory supported the idea of a sovereign ruler whose authority would stand above the estates to be able to keep the kingdom under control. On the contrary, the so-called resistance theory strived to limit the monarch’s power and to justify a possible intervention against a malevolent ruler - the tyrant. I intend to show that Jessenius´ social ethics which refers to the latter resistance theory was of a premodern nature since its conception of State and its reign remained in a denominationally limited framework. Nevertheless; Jessenius’ polemics with the supporters of ruling sovereignty, which seem to be his original contribution, makes his writing a unique political work in Central Europe. Moreover, the second edition of Jessenius’ text (1620, Prague), which for a long time had disappeared from public view, can rightly be considered a remarkable projection of resistance theory toward actual political struggle at the very beginning of the Thirty Years War.

References DRANSEIKA, V. & NEIDERS, I. (2018): In defense of pluralistic policy on the determination of death. In: Ethics & Bioethics ( in Central Europe ), 8(3–4), pp. 179–188. KALAJTZIDIS, J. (2018): The challenge of death and ethics of social consequences: Death of moral agency. In: Ethics & Bioethics ( in Central Europe ), 8(3–4), pp. 209–218. KOMENSKÁ, K. (2018): Death, ethical judgments and dignity. In: Ethics & Bioethics ( in Central Europe ), 8(3–4), pp. 201–208. NOWAK, P. G. (2018): Brain death as irreversible loss of a human’s moral status. In

References CAMPBELL, A., CHARLESWORTH, M., GILLET, G. & JONES, G. (1997): Medical ethics . Auckland: Oxford University Press. CLARK, W. R. (1996): Sex & the origins of death. Oxford: Oxford University Press. COHEN, C. B. (1983): “Quality of Life” and analogy with the Nazis. In: The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 8(5), pp. 113–135. GLUCHMAN, M. (2013): Medical ethics and the problem of assisted suicide. In: Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe) , 3(1–2), pp. 67–75. GLUCHMAN, M. (2014a): Problém humánnosti a ľudskej dôstojnosti v bioetike [ The


Effective Altruism is a very new discipline. The first steps towards creating a community were made in 2009. Although the movement is young, it has already changed lives of many people and its popularity continues to rise. The idea of effective altruism is deeply rooted in philosophy, hence to understand it better an attempt will be made to reconstruct and present the philosophical framework of Effective Altruism. This part is intended to show the development of utilitarian thought that led to Effective Altruism. I intentionally limited this reconstruction to the views of Peter Singer, as his philosophy inspired many effective altruists, especially at the beginning of the movement. I have tried to show that his earliest works were the first steps on the way to effective altruism. In the second part selected details of the idea will be referred to in order to show the current state of development of this branch of utilitarianism. In the last part, selected doubts and critical remarks will be presented that might be inspiration to adapt Effective Altruism to specific conditions of Central and Eastern Europe. It will be argued that advocacy for Effective Altruism is a fair way for effective altruists in countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

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References DOMAGAŁA, J. (2015): Vasil Gluchman’s ethics of social consequences and the professional ethics of a Polish Police Officer. In: Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe) , 5(1–2), pp. 115–119. DUBIEL-ZIELIŃSKA, P. (2013): “Ethics of social consequences” and “Ethics of Development” as Theories belonging to Stream of Ethics of Act. In: Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe), 3(3–4), pp. 173–188. DUBIEL-ZIELIŃSKA, P. (2015): Consequentialist and non-consequentialist overtones of the Code of ethics of an academic staff member in light of ethics of social

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Gavlovič in the history of Slovak culture]. In: Slovenská reč , 55(6), pp. 371–374. LEŠKO, V. (2004): Dejiny filozofie I [ History of philosophy, vol. I ]. Prešov: FF PU. MISSERI, L. E. (2017): Comenius’ ethics: from the heart to the world. In: Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe) , 7(1–2), pp. 13–23. ORAVCOVÁ, M. (1989): Filozofický kontext Gavlovičovej tvorby [Philosophical context of Gavlovič’s work]. In: I. Sedlák (ed.): Hugolín Gavlovič v dejinách slovenskej kultúry [ Hugolín Gavlovič in the history of Slovak culture ]. Martin: Matica Slovenská, pp. 38

Personality . Budapest: Central European University Press. ŠKVORECKÝ, J. (1973): All the bright Young Men and Women , trans. M. Schonberg. Toronto: Peter Martin Associates. ŠKVORECKÝ, J. (1982): Jiří Menzel and the history of Closely watched trains . Boulder: East European Monographs. TESSMAN, L. (2005): Burdened virtues : Virtue ethics for liberatory struggles . Oxford: Oxford University Press.