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Saeedeh Javar, Ahmad Said Sajap, Rozi Mohamed and Lau Wei Hong

-193. Shahout H.A., Xu J.X., Yao X.M., Jia Q.D. 2011. Influence and mechanism of different host plants on the growth, development and, fecundity of reproductive system of common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Asian J. Agric. Sci. 3 (4): 291-300. Shorey H.H., Hale R.L. 1965. Mass rearing of the larvae of nine noctuid species on a simple artificial medium. J. Econ. Entomol. 58 (3): 522-524. Singh S., Gautam A., Sharma A., Batra A. 2010. Centella asiatica (L.): a plant with immense medicinal potential but

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Somchai Sawatdee, Kanuengnit Choochuay, Wirot Chanthorn and Teerapol Srichana

REFERENCES 1. D. Arora, M. Kumar and S. D. Dubey, Centella asiatica – a review of its medicinal uses and pharmacological effects, J. Nat. Remedies 2 (2002) 143–149. 2. K. J. Gohil, J. A. Patel and A. K. Gajjar, Pharmacological review on Centella asiatica : a potential herbal cure-all, Indian J. Pharm. Sci . 72 (2010) 546–556; DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.78519. 3. P. Hashim, H. Sidek, M. H. M. Helen, A. Sabery, U. D. Palanisamy and M. Ilham, Triterpene composition and bioactivities of Centella asiatica , Molecules 16 (2011) 1310

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Kok Song Lai, Khatijah Yusoff and Maziah Mahmood

. Enhanced production of asiaticoside from hairy root cultures of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban elicited by methyl jasmonate. Plant Cell Reports 26: 1941-1949. KIM OT, KIM HS, OHYAMA K, MURANAKA T, CHOI YE, LEE HY, KIM MY, and HWANG B. 2010. Upregulation of phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis in Centella asiatica hairy roots overexpressed ginseng farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Plant Cell Reports 29: 403-411. KO K, and KOPROWSKI H. 2005. Plant biopharming of monoclonal antibodies. Virus Research 111: 93

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Amar Bahadur, B. Sarma and U. Singh

Water Soluble Antifungal Metabolites of Pea (Pisum Sativum) Leaves Determine Infection by Erysiphe Pisi

Antifungal activity of water soluble exudates of pea leaves was assayed. Exudates of different nodal leaves were collected by dipping them in sterilized distilled water for different length of time and conidial germination of four non-pathogenic to pea fungi (Alternaria solani, Curvularia lunata, Helminthosporium penniseti and H. echinocloa) and one pea pathogenic to pea fungus (Erysiphe pisi) was observed in the collected exudates. The leaf exudates inhibited differently conidial germination and A. solani and C. lunata were found highly susceptible. Conidial germination on exudate-depleted pea leaves showed better germination of E. pisi than on non-depleted leaves. Bipolar germination was the highest on II and III nodal leaves dipped in distilled water for 18 h while after 24 h it was the highest on I nodal leaves following dipping in distilled water. Similarly, conidial germination of E. pisi was observed on different nodal leaves of pea of different age. It was very clear that young leaves did not support germination at all and on the same nodal leaves conidia germinated after the leaves became older. No germination was observed on less than 20-day-old leaves. Moreover, 30-day-old leaves were found to be highly susceptible as bipolar germination of E. pisi conidia was maximum on such leaves and did not increase with aging.

Open access

Pawana Panomket, Surasak Wanram, Thanyakarn Srivorasmas and Nipawan Pongprom

Abstract

Background: Burkholderia pseudomallei are causative agents of melioidosis, a disease found mostly in South- East Asia and Northern Australia. Recent reports of a reduced susceptibility of B. pseudomallei to antibiotics, especially ceftazidime, have indicated need for further research into new antimicrobial substances from plants.

Objectives: We tested antimicrobial activity of 10 plant extracts; Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn., Cleome gynandra Linn., Luffa acutangula (Linn.) Roxb., Limnophila geoffrayi Bonati, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, Piper sarmentosum Roxb., Tamarindus indica, Cyperus rotundus Linn., Cassia fistula Linn., and Allium sativum Linn.

Materials and Methods: Crude extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity by the standard disc diffusion assay and micro-dilution assay. Methanol, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane, and water were used as solvents for extraction.

Results: The methanolic extract of B. acutangula (L.) Gaertn. showed the best antimicrobial results against B. pseudomallei with an inhibition zone of 18 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 4 mg/ml. The chemical structure of crude methanolic extracts of B. acutangula (L.) Gaertn. was primarily elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The results showed that the chemical constituent was in the group of steroids.

Conclusions: It is concluded that Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. may play an active part in the inhibition of the growth of B. pseudomallei.

Open access

Kok Song Lai and Takehisa Masatsugu

Centella asiatica callus. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33: 2547-2552. LAI KS, KATHOIEN-NAKAYAMA P, IWANO M, and TAKAYAMA S. 2012a A TILLING resource for functional genomics in Arabidopsis thaliana accession C24. Genes and Genetic Systems 87: 291-297. LAI KS, YUSOFF K, and MAHMOOD M. 2011b. Extracellular matrix layer as the early structural marker for Centella asiatica embryogenic tissues. Biologia Plantarum 55: 549-553. LAI KS, YUSOFF K, and MAHMOOD M. 2012b. Functional ectodomain of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein

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Jana Ambrožič-Dolinšek, Terezija Ciringer and Mitja Kaligarič

28, 1–4. Gaddaguti, V., Reddy, K. S., Deepthi, R. S., Lavanya, K., Rama, C., Talluri, V. R., Allu, P. R., 2013: In vitro flower induction and multiple shoot regeneration studies in Centella asiatica from nodal and leaf explants. Annals of Plant Sciences 2, 55–58. Gaston, K. J., Kunin, W. E., 1997: What is rarity? In: Kunin, W. E., Gaston, K. J., (ed.) The biology of rarity, causes and consequences of rare-common differences, 30–47. Chapman and Hall, London. George, E. F., 1993: Plant propagation by tissue culture; Part 2: in practice, 2nd edn

Open access

Paulina Malinowska

on free radical and active oxygen. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1998; 75:455-461. 26. Chan YS, Cheng LN, Wu JH, Chan E, Kwan YW, Lee SM, Leung GP, Yu PH, Chan SW. A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology 2011; 19 (5):245-254. 27. Hsu CY. Antioxidant activity of extract from Polygonum aviculare L. Biol Res 2006; 39 (2):281-288. 28. Gupta YK, Veerendra Kumar MH, Srivastava AK. Effect of Centella asiatica on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling, cognition and oxidative stress in

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Bashetty Phanindhra, Akondi Butchi Raju, Gadiyaram Vikas, Repala Anusha and Donapati Deepika

. Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter for learning and memory? Brain Res Rev 1996; 21: 285-300. 20. Kumar A, Dogra S, Prakash A. Neuroprotective effects of Centella asiatica against intracerebroventricular colchicine induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2009:1-8. 21. Rathee JS, Shyam AL, Chattopadhyay S. Antioxidant activity of Nyctanthes arbor tristis leaf extract, Food Chem 2007:1350-1357. 22. Verma N, Kaur J, Bhatia A. Stimulation of Acetylcholinesterase activity with Nyctanthes arbor- tristis leaves extract in the malathion treated

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Tasiu Isah and Abdul Mujib

E, and WYSOKINSKA H. 2004. In vitro regeneration of Salvia nemorosa L. from shoot tips and leaf explants. In Vitro Cellular Developmental Biology Plant 40: 596-602. TIWARI KN, SHARMA NC, TIWARI V, and SINGH BD. 2000.Micropropagation of Centella asiatica (L.) a valuable medicinal herb. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 63: 179-183. VELAYUTHAM P, RANJITHAKUMARI BD, and BASKARAN P. 2006. An efficient in vitro plant regeneration system for Cichorium intybus L.: An important medicinal plant. Journal of Agricultural Technology 2(2): 287