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Ray Sin-Ngai Ng

1 Background and technical aspects of PET-CT Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) is the fusion of functional and anatomic scan that acquired almost simultaneously. It helps us to visualize the form and activity of potential diseases within the body. It is now a popular nuclear imaging modality for the evaluation of cancer, fever or inflammation of unknown origin. The differential diagnosis sometimes includes the rheumatic disorders. It is based on the fact that the glucose transporters are up regulated on cell membrane secondary to

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Anastasija Trofimovica and Ilze Apine

REFERENCES 1. Antoch G., Vogt FM., Freudenberg LS. et al. Wholebody dual-modality PET/CT and whole-body MRI for tumor staging in oncology // JAMA, 2003; 290:3199–206 2. Brennan D. D., Gleeson T, Coate LE, et al. A comparison of whole-body MRI and CT for the staging of lymphoma //AJR Am J Roentgenlogy, 2005;185(3):711—6 3. Canale S., Vilcot L., Ammari S. et al. Whole body MRI in pediatric oncology // Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, 2014; 95, 541—550 4. Chawla S. C., et al. Estimated cumulative radiation dose from PET/CT in children

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Amela Sofic, Serif Beslic, Igor Kocijancic and Nedzad Sehovic

References Perše M, Cerar A. Physical activity and colorectal cancer. [Slovenian]. Zdrav Vestn 2009; 78 : 399-405. Brkić T, Grgić M. Colorectal Carcinoma. Medicus 2006; 15 : 89-97. Colorectal cancer. http.//www.wikimedia.org/wik/colorectal-cancer Kim DH, Pickhardt PJ, Taylor AJ, Leung WK, Winter TC, Hinshaw JL, et al. CT colonography versus colonoscopy for the detection of advanced neoplasia. N Engl J Med 2007; 357 : 1403

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Magdalena Rajczakowska, Damian Stefaniuk and Dariusz Łydżba

References [1] HENRY M., DARMA I.S., SUGIYAMA T., Analysis of the effect of heating and re-curing on the microstructure of highstrength concrete using X-ray CT, Construction and Building Materials, 2014, Vol. 67, 37-46. [2] REN W., YANG Z., SHARMA R., ZHANG C., WITHERS P.J., Two-dimensional X-ray CT image based meso-scale fracture modelling of concrete, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 2015, Vol. 133, 24-39. [3] BOSSA N., CHAURAND P., VICENTE J., BORSCHNECK D., LEVARD C., AGUERRE-CHARIOL O., ROSE J., Micro- and

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Nattinee Leelakanok and Nitra Piyavisetpat

the respiratory system [ 2 - 8 ]. Previous studies investigated the aging respiratory system. A study of rats demonstrated collagen accumulation and progressive fibrosis of the aging lung [ 9 ]. Microscopic examination of aging human lungs shows increasing airspace size without evidence of destruction of the alveolar wall [ 10 - 12 ]. Plain radiographs reveal hyperinflation of the lungs and bullous spaces in the lungs of both normal and emphysematous patients [ 13 ]. Several computed tomography (CT) studies examining lung morphology in elderly revealed air trapping

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Soha M Abd El-Dayem, Sahar A El-Masry, Hamed Elghawaby, Farid Gamil Amin and Ibrahim A Ibrahim

References 1. Berker D, Koparal S, Iþik S, Paþaoðlu L, Aydin Y, Erol K, Delibaþi T, Güler S. Compatibility of different methods for the measurement of visceral fat in different body mass index strata. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2010;16(2):99-105. 2. Yu OK, Rhee YK, Park TS, Cha YS. Comparisons of obesity assessments in over-weight elementary students using anthropometry, BIA, CT and DEXA. Nutr Res Pract. 2010; 4(2):128-35. 3. Ghalli I, Salah N, Hussien F, Erfan M, El-Ruby M, Mazen I, Sabry M, Abd El-Razik M

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Anoop Haridass, Jillian Maclean, Santanu Chakraborty, John Sinclair, Janos Szanto, Daniela Iancu and Shawn Malone

: 104-10. 9. Polloc k BE, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD, Maitz A, Kondziolka D. Factors associated with successful arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery. Neurosurgery 1998; 42: 1239-44; Discussion 44-7. 10. Matsum oto M, Kodama N, Endo Y, Sakuma J, Suzuki K, Sasaki T, et al. Dynamic 3D-CT angiography. Am J Neuroradiol 2007; 28: 299-304. 11. Willem s PW, Taeshineetanakul P, Schenk B, Brouwer PA, Terbrugge KG, Krings T. The use of 4D-CTA in the diagnostic work-up of brain arteriovenous malformations. Neuroradiology 2012; 54

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Freek CP Du Plessis

References [1] Nobah A, Moftah B, Tomic N, et al. Influence of electron density spatial distribution and X-ray beam quality during CT simulation on dose calculation accuracy. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2011;12(3):80-89. [2] Constantinou C, Harrington JC, DeWerd LA. An electron density calibration phantom for CT-based treatment planning computers. Med Phys. 1992;19(2):325-327. [3] Inness EK, Moutrie V, Charles PH. The dependence of computed tomography number to relative electron density conversion on phantom geometry and its impact on planned dose

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B. Obadă, Al. O. Șerban, V. Botnaru and Al. Valcu

References 1. Perron, A.D., Miller, M.D. & Brady, W.J. (2002). Orthopedic pitfalls in the ED: radiographically occult hip fracture. Am J Emerg Med. 20, 234-237 2. Pandey, R., McNally, E. & Ali, A. et al. (1998). The role of MRI in the diagnosis of occult hip fractures. Injury. 29, 61-63 3. Lubovsky, O., Liebergall, M. & Mattan, Y. et al. (2005). Early diagnosis of occult hip fractures MRI versus CT scan. Injury. 36, 788-792 4. Lim, K.B., Eng, A.K., Chng, S.M., Tan, A.G., Thoo, F.L. & Low, C

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Iman Avazpour, Ros Roslan, Peyman Bayat, M. Saripan, Abdul Nordin and Raja Abdullah

References Shetty C, Lakhkar B, Gangadhar V, Ramachandran N. Changing pattern of bronchogenic carcinoma: a statistical variation or a reality? Indian J Radiol Imaging 2005; 15: 233-8. De Wever W, Stroobants S, Coolen J, Verschakelen JA. Integrated PET/CT in the staging of nonsmall cell lung cancer: technical aspects and clinical integration. Eur Respir J 2009; 33: 201-12. Kovac V, Smrdel U. Meta-analyses of clinical trials in patients with non-small cell lung cancer