Introduction: The majority of research regarding echogenic intracardiac focus (EIF) concentrates on its weak correlation with the occurrence of Down syndrome. The aim of our research was to approach this problem from a wider perspective and to find out, if the prenatal diagnosis of EIF is connected with the occurrence of other abnormalities of prenatal and postnatal period.
Materials & Methods: The data of 114 patients with prenatally diagnosed EIF were analyzed retrospectively. No fetal or neonatal chromosomal abnormalities were included.
Results: In 13/114 (11,4%) fetuses cardiological abnormalities other then EIF were diagnosed: 8/114 (7%) cases of congenital heart defects and 7/114 (6,1%) cases of tricuspid valve regurgitation. Extracardiac malformations were diagnosed in 11/114 (8,8%) of fetuses. In 7/114 (6,1%) of the cases the abnormal volume of amniotic fluid was diagnosed. In 4/114 (3,5%) of pregnancies the premature rapture of membranes (PROM) occurred. Six, 6/114 (5,3%) of pregnancies were at risk of intrauterine asphyxia in perinatal period. 12/114 (10,5%) newborns were delivered before 37th week of gestation, stillbirth occurred in 1/114 (0,9%) case. Most newborns (86/114; 75,4%) birth weight >3000g. In 19/114 (16,7%) of newborns birth weight was 2500g-3000g. In 9/114 (7,9%) of newborns birth weight was <2500g
Conclusions: Fetuses with EIF without chromosomal aberrations may present heart defects which are hard to diagnose in basic obstetrical USG scan. Therefore, those patients should be directed to prenatal cardiology facilities for evaluation of the fetal heart.
Prenatal EIF in fetuses without chromosomal aberrations may indicate low birth weight (<2500g) in the future. Further research of this matter is needed.
Facial skin is one of the basic choices reflections of human quality life and lifestyle. In processes of human aging start skin changes: wrinkles are forming, there are seen changes of skin composition, firmness and moisture content, decreasing absorption of vitamins. Skin of all age groups face with variety of skin problems, causing negative impact on face beauty and brightness, what causes dissatisfaction of own appearance and variety of aesthetic problems. Another important problem occurring in mature age are pigment spots, what rises because of locally intensified melanogenesis, which depends on various factors - genetic, ultraviolet radiation, hormonal disorders, inflammation of skin, disorders of nervous regulatory mechanisms, deficiency of vitamin C. Therefore, skin problems require complex work of beauty therapists and clients dealing with facial skin problems. Cosmetics enriched with vitamin C can be used to solve facial skin problems, skin recovery, purification, pigmentation bleaching.
Aim of article – to determine impact of cosmetics enriched with vitamin C for mature facial skin. In cosmetology vitamin C helps to eliminate variety problems that are occurring in mature age and cause negative aesthetic appearance and psychological problems. This leads to the need to make investigations in this area, what could let to evaluate care of face skin with cosmetics enriched with vitamin C, solving facial skin problems.
Investigations were carried out using cosmetics with biologically active substances. Monitored and recorded changes of facial skin before cosmetic procedures and after each of their performance. The study carried out case and comparative analysis. Results of investigation led to form main conclusions: cosmetic procedures with cosmetics enriched with vitamin C, are effective solving problems of mature skin. More effective these procedures are together with observed healthier lifestyle. Vitamin C ensure better resistance of skin, it’s elasticity, moisture, firmness, colour uniformity, strengthens capillaries, reduces face skin irritations, brightens pigment spots.
Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease which causes inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s disease most frequently affects the ileum and the colon. In the active stage of the disease signs and symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, blood in the stools, reduced appetite and weight loss. In patients with severe Crohn’s disease the following signs and symptoms may be observed: fever, fatigue, arthritis, eye inflammation, oral ulcers, skin disorders, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts or delayed growth. Heredity and dysfunctions of the immune system are considered to cause the development of Crohn’s disease. About 10% of people with inflammatory bowel disease have also ocular problems. The most common ocular manifestations of Crohn’s disease are uveitis, iritis, episcleritis, keratopathy, keratoconjunctivitis and retinal vasculitis. Untreated uveitis may cause glaucoma and vision loss. Uveitis and iritis are four times more common in women than in men. In patients in the active stage of the disease, episcleritis also flares. Symptoms of episcleritis include inflammation, bright red spots on the sclera and localized pain. Keratoconjunctivitis in Crohn’s disease is caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Dry eyes can cause itching, burning or infection. Keratopathy usually causes no pain or vision loss, therefore in most cases no treatment is needed. In retinal vasculitis tortuosity of retinal veins, retinal edema at the posterior pole and intraretinal blood near blood vessels are observed. Intravenous fluorescein angiography shows intraretinal neovascularisation and haemorrhage in the posterior pole.
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