References Adelberger K.E., 1999. A developmental German state? Explaining growth in German biotechnology and venture capital. BRIE Working Paper 134. Aharonson B., Baum J., Plunket A., 2008. Inventive and uninventive clusters: The case of Canadian biotechnology. Research Policy 37(6-7): 1108-1131. Bauer M., 1995. Resistance to new technology and its effects on nuclear power, information technology and biotechnology. In: Bauer M. (ed.), Resistance to new technology: Nuclear power, information technology and
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Kevan M.A. Gartland and Jill S. Gartland
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Miroslav Ondrejovič and Stanislav Miertuš
References 1. Kreysa J. BioEconomy, the key issues in Europe. JRC-EC - CEI - ICGEB European Workshop “Smart Specialization Strategy in the Field of Biotechnologies in Europe: A Challenge for CEE Countries. Bratislava, 2017. 2. Pastorek J. RIS3 in Slovakia. Current state and relevance to biotechnology. JRC-EC – CEI ICGEB European Workshop “Smart Specialization Strategy in the Field of Biotechnologies in Europe: A Challenge for CEE Countries. Bratislava, 2017. 3. Deputy Prime Minister´s Office for Investments and Informatization of the Slovak
, T. (2013). Les nouvelles biotechnologies en questions. Paris : Salvator. Rosnay, J. de and F. Papillon. (2010). Et l’homme fabriqua la vie. LLL. Schaer, R. (2013). Répondre du vivant, Le Pommier. St Irenaeus. Adversus Haereses. V. 6. 1.
Mariana Sandu and Stefan Mantea
For livestock holdings, the breeding sector is the most important and the level of breeding technical indicators is the path to profit or loss. It can be said that in animal husbandry, this is the sector with the highest degree of technicality and that is why there were made efforts in research to create modern techniques that allow the man to control all these phenomena and the level of indicators to not depend only on the capabilities of the bull, boar, ram and rooster, etc.
The aim of this paper is to provide a view upon the use of breeding biotechnologies in Romanian livestock. Based on the data of National Agency for Improvement and Reproduction in Animal Husbandry were analyzed the dynamics of artificial insemination, in species of livestock contained in Official Control of Production (COP). The dynamics of embryo transfer in cattle, in Romania, in the period 2000-2012 is based on data reported by the Romanian Association of Embryo Transfer (A.R.E.T.) to the European Association of Embryo Transfer (A.E.T.E.).
Although until 1990 agricultural research and the system of state enterprises favored the application of these biotechnologies, after 1990, the highly divided property in agriculture and the lack of organization of farmers in associative forms resulted in the restricted use of these modern techniques.
Regarding the use A.I., in the analyzed period, the total number of A.I. decreased by 55%, due to the changes that have occurred since 1990, with the restructuring that occurred in livestock (reducing the number of large farms and the continue decline of the number of females) and in the national network of breeding and selection of animals.
In Romania, due to high costs, embryo transfer is not a method currently used and accessible to ordinary farmers, being used mostly to obtain the bulls used in artificial insemination network or the cows as steers mothers.
Meliha Merve Hiz and Cüneyt Aki
References 1. Adenle A. A., 2011 ‒ Response to issues on GM agriculture in Africa: Are transgenic crops safe? BMC Research Notes, 4, 388. 2. Al-Salameen F., Kumar V., Al-Aqeel H., Al-Hashash H. and Hejji A. B., 2012 ‒ Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait, GM Crops Food, 3, 4, 283-288. 3. Anderson K., 2010 ‒ Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade, New Biotechnology, 27, 558-564. 4. Bhawsar S. and Cameotra S. S., 2011
Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva and Dariusz Kulus
unique genetic material for breeding. Sci. Culture 7-8: 307-313. Datta S.K., Teixeira da Silva J.A., 2006. Role of induced mutagenesis for development of new flower colour and type in ornamentals. In: Floriculture, Ornamental and Plant Biotechnology: Advances and Topical Issues (1st Ed., Volume I). J.A. Teixeira da Silva (ed.), Global Science Books Ltd., Isleworth, UK: 640-645. Deein W., Thepsithar C., Thongpukd ee A., 2013a. In vitro culture medium sterilization by chemicals and essential oils without autoclaving and growth of
Kevan M.A. Gartland, Munis Dundar, Tommaso Beccari, Mariapia Viola Magni and Jill S. Gartland
applications of genome edit ing in HIV. Blood 2016; 127: 2546-2552. 23. Kühn R, Wurst W, Wefers B. TALENS Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology 2016; 1338. 24. Kleinstiver BP, Tsai SQ, Prew MS, Nguyen NT, Welch MM, Lopez JM, McCaw ZR, Aryee MJ, Joung JK Genome-wide specificities of CRISPR-Cas Cpf1 nucleases in human cells. Nature Biotechnology 2016; 34: 869-874. 25. Mojica FJ, Diez-Villasenor C, Garcia-Martinez J, Soria E. Intervening sequences of regularly spaced prokaryotic repeats derive from foreign genetic
Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Mafatlal M. Kher, Deepak Soner and M. Nataraj
Biotechnology 8: 2948-2958. DOI: 10.5897/AJB09.525. Gupta P.C. 2012. Withania coagulans Dunal – an overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 12: 68-71. Gupta V., Keshari B.B. 2013. Withania coagulans Dunal (Paneer Doda): a review. International Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine 3(5): 1130-1136. Jain R., Kachhwaha S., Kothari S.L. 2012. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and biotechnology of Withania somnifera and Withania coagulans : a review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6: 5388-5399. DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12